# Mathematical optimization problem doesn't look good

I was trying to write an optimization problem in which "subject to" part is a vector statement. however it doesn't look good. $\begin{array}{clcll} \textrm{min} & \|k_i\|^2 &\equiv &\textrm{min} & \|k_i\|^2\\ \text{s.t. } & \begin{array}{c} k_i'w_1=0 \\ \vdots\\ k_i'w_i=1\\ \vdots\\ k_i'w_n=0 \end{array} & &\text{s.t. } &\left[\begin{array}{c}\textendash w_1\textendash \\ \vdots\\ \textendash w_i\textendash \\ \vdots\\ \textendash w_n\textendash \end{array}\right] \left[\begin{array}{c}| \\ k_i\\ |\end{array}\right]= \left[\begin{array}{c} 0 \\ \vdots\\ 1\\ \vdots\\ 0 \end{array}\right]=e_i \end{array}$


Is there any way to force the vectors to be more compacted? (to occupy less space)

• Welcome to TeX SX! What do the k_i' s have to do with the k_is? – Bernard Jan 8 '16 at 20:39
• @Bernard k_i is one column of a matrix and k-i'  is its transpose – SMA.D Jan 8 '16 at 21:20

try this. i've suppressed some of the vertical space around the \vdots and used the matrix environments from amsmath to close those up a bit.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}

\newcommand{\xvdots}{\vphantom{{\sum^0}^0}\smash{\vdots}}

\begin{document}
\begin{alignat*}{2}
&\textrm{min} \quad \|k_i\|^2 &\ &\equiv \textrm{min} \quad \|k_i\|^2\2pt] &\text{s.t.}\quad \ \, \begin{matrix} k_i'w_1=0 \\ \xvdots\\ k_i'w_i=1\\ \xvdots\\ k_i'w_n=0 \end{matrix} &\ & \phantom{{}\equiv{}} \text{s.t.} \quad \begin{bmatrix} \text{--} w_1\text{--} \\ \xvdots\\ \text{--} w_i\text{--} \\ \xvdots\\ \text{--} w_n\text{--} \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} | \\ k_i \\ | \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ \xvdots\\ 1 \\ \xvdots\\ 0 \end{bmatrix} = e_i \end{alignat*} \end{document} • Thank you, that's pretty nice. Is it possible to reduce the horizontal space between two matrices that are being multiplied. i.e. \text{--} w_1\text{--} \\ \xvdots\\ \text{--} w_i\text{--} \\ \xvdots\\ \text{--} w_n\text{--}  and | \\ k_i \\ |? – SMA.D Jan 8 '16 at 21:35 • sure it's possible. there's a line between the first two bmatrix components. just remove that. (i'll edit in a modified version, with this change.) – barbara beeton Jan 8 '16 at 21:39 • if they're still not close enough, inserting a small backspace -- \! -- between them should fix that. – barbara beeton Jan 8 '16 at 21:44 • I looked below, but you were above, +1 anyway:-) – David Carlisle Jan 8 '16 at 21:51 Here is another option showing how you can manipulate the row spacing using portions of \normalbaselineskip: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{mathtools,array} \begin{document} \[ \setlength{\arraycolsep}{0pt} \begin{array}[t]{l} \min \|k_i\|^2 \\[.5\normalbaselineskip] \text{s.t. } \begin{array}{r>{{}}l} k_i'w_1 &= 0 \\[-.4\normalbaselineskip] & \vdotswithin{=} \\[-.1\normalbaselineskip] k_i'w_i &= 1 \\[-.4\normalbaselineskip] & \vdotswithin{=} \\[-.1\normalbaselineskip] k_i'w_n &= 0 \end{array} \end{array} \quad \equiv \quad \begin{array}[t]{l} \min \|k_i\|^2 \\[.5\normalbaselineskip] \text{s.t. } \left[\begin{array}{c} \text{-- } w_1 \text{ --} \\[-.4\normalbaselineskip] \vdots \\[-.1\normalbaselineskip] \text{-- } w_i \text{ --} \\[-.4\normalbaselineskip] \vdots \\[-.1\normalbaselineskip] \text{-- } w_n \text{ --} \end{array}\right] \left[\begin{array}{c} | \\ k_i \\ | \end{array}\right] = \left[\begin{array}{c} 0 \\[-.4\normalbaselineskip] \vdots \\[-.1\normalbaselineskip] 1 \\[-.4\normalbaselineskip] \vdots \\[-.1\normalbaselineskip] 0 \end{array}\right] = e_i \end{array}

\end{document}


Not totally happy with it but you could start tinkering from here: \documentclass{article}
\usepackage{mathtools}
\begin{document}
$\min _{\mathrlap{\substack{ \text{s.t.}\\ k_i'w_1=0 \\ \vdots\\ k_i'w_i=1\\ \vdots\\ k_i'w_n=0}}} \|k_i\|^2 \quad\equiv\quad \min _{\mkern-18mu\mathrlap{\substack{ \text{s.t.}\\ \left[\begin{smallmatrix}\text{--} w_1\text{--} \\ \vdots\\ \text{--} w_i\text{--} \\ \vdots\\ \text{--} w_n\text{--} \end{smallmatrix}\right] \left[\begin{smallmatrix}| \\ k_i\\ |\end{smallmatrix}\right]= \left[\begin{smallmatrix} 0 \\ \vdots\\ 1\\ \vdots\\ 0 \end{smallmatrix}\right]=e_i}}} \|k_i\|^2$

\end{document}

• ...hmmm... this doesn't look good. – Werner Jan 8 '16 at 21:00
• @Werner it looks pretty horrible actually but the components are probably there, mathtools, \min , \substack are more likely to make something usable than just using array. Probably needs a different layout altogether though really. – David Carlisle Jan 8 '16 at 21:06
• hmmmph. surely you could have done better without much effort. the only really badly designed "original" component is the \vdots, which have always had too much space at the top. – barbara beeton Jan 8 '16 at 21:24
• @barbarabeeton I'd be happy to vote for your answer if you made one:-) – David Carlisle Jan 8 '16 at 21:40
• see below. (appreciate the appreciation.) – barbara beeton Jan 8 '16 at 21:42