# Making and sorting index for Russian

Trying to make index with Russian words, MWE:

\documentclass{book}
\usepackage[T1, T2A]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english, russian]{babel}
\usepackage[xindy]{imakeidx}
\makeindex

\begin{document}

\chapter{Первая}

\index{apple}
\index{часть}
\index{дерево}
\index{электрон}

\printindex

\end{document}


I use MiKTeX (full and updated), run: latexmk.exe -pdf file.tex

This gives me file.pdf with russian words in Index, but they are sorted in wrong way. file.idx is:

\indexentry{notepad}{1}
\indexentry{apple}{1}
\indexentry{\IeC {\cyrch }\IeC {\cyra }\IeC {\cyrs }\IeC {\cyrt }\IeC {\cyrsftsn }}{1}
\indexentry{\IeC {\cyrd }\IeC {\cyre }\IeC {\cyrr }\IeC {\cyre }\IeC {\cyrv }\IeC {\cyro }}{1}
\indexentry{\IeC {\cyrerev }\IeC {\cyrl }\IeC {\cyre }\IeC {\cyrk }\IeC {\cyrt }\IeC {\cyrr }\IeC {\cyro }\IeC {\cyrn }}{1}


And I see the problem is that LaTeX makes index according to these {\cyrch}, {\cyre} etc. I thought using utf8 encoding and xindy could solve all the problems with languages. How to make russian index with correct sorting: дерево, часть, электрон in my case?

• I think that this post might contain your answer: tex.stackexchange.com/questions/22669/… I think that XeLaTeX has better multiple language support. Feb 11, 2016 at 14:07
• What options do you pass to xindy? Feb 11, 2016 at 14:12

Due to some constraints, the \index command doesn't work very well with UTF-8 characters (something which could only be solved with a brand new version, I'm afraid.)

You can overcome the issue by doing

\documentclass{book}
\usepackage[T1, T2A]{fontenc}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[english, russian]{babel}
\usepackage[xindy]{imakeidx}
\makeindex

\makeatletter
\newcommand{\rindex}[2][\imki@jobname]{%
\index[#1]{\detokenize{#2}}%
}
\makeatother

\begin{document}

\chapter{Первая}

\rindex{apple}
\rindex{часть}
\rindex{дерево}
\rindex{электрон}

\printindex

\end{document}


Calling

texindy -L russian -C utf8 <filename>.idx


produces the index as expected:

• thank you for answer. But, sorry, doesn't work for me. I just used your MWE.
– Alx
Feb 11, 2016 at 14:54
• @Alx “Doesn't work” in the sense that your computer screen becomes flashy yellow or… Feb 11, 2016 at 15:02
• thank you for answer. But, sorry, doesn't work for me. I just used your MWE. pdflatex 111.tex gives 111.idx with the same {\cyr} symbols, i.e. not readable (no words in Russian). Then, as you suggested, texindy -L russian -C utf8 111.idx. This gives such error: ERROR: CHAR: index 0 should be less than the length of the string and 111.ind of zero length, so that running pdflatex again prints only first page with Chapter, but no Index at all. Does this concern with my MiKTeX distribution, or utf8? I could use another encoding (cp1251, eg.) if that helps ...
– Alx
Feb 11, 2016 at 15:06
• @Alx I'm very sorry: I left in a line I used for debugging. Try now. Feb 11, 2016 at 15:09
• many tanks for your help. BTW, I just tried xelatex instead of pdflatex (I saw @AFeldman pointing to similar topic about sorting non-latin characters) -- great, latexmk -xelatex <file>.tex makes Index with right sorting with my oroginal file (without your \detokenize block). Probably, I should use xelatex if I work with utf8.
– Alx
Feb 11, 2016 at 15:45

OK, thanks, this works now! But, there is some difference in English and Russian parts of Index. I mean each Russian word (group of words) has corresponding first letter in bold before, and English words are printed in common list. Can all parts of Index (all languages) be printed in a similar way?

I managed this with changing the \makeindex command in egreg's answer to:

\makeindex [options = -L russian -C utf8 -M latin-alph.xdy]


Here for this command could work you should pass -enable-write18 key to pdfLaTeX. Alternatively, you could run texindy manually passing -M latin-alph.xdy key to it.

Here latin-alph.xdy file should look like this:

(define-letter-groups
("a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "f" "g" "h" "i" "j" "k" "l" "m"
"n" "o" "p" "q" "r" "s" "t" "u" "v" "w" "x" "y" "z"))

(require
"rules/latin-tolower.xdy")

(use-rule-set
:run 0
:rule-set ("latin-tolower"))

(markup-letter-group
:capitalize)


And the result is:

• I actually don't have any question, just improved the previous answer. Apr 20, 2016 at 23:01
• How to change this example to "latin first, cyrillic second"?
– andc
Aug 6, 2019 at 5:27
• @andc, as I remember, by default, xindy sorts entries with latin letters first. So, just remove -M latin-alph.xdy option to \makeindex. Sep 20, 2019 at 8:05

OK, thanks, this works now! But, there is some difference in English and Russian parts of Index. I mean each Russian word (group of words) has corresponding first letter in bold before, and English words are printed in common list. Can all parts of Index (all languages) be printed in a similar way?

Just one more improving. You can use this simple solution.

(require "lang/english/utf8.xdy")
(require "lang/russian/utf8.xdy")

(define-sort-rule-orientations (forward backward forward forward))
(use-rule-set
:run 0
:rule-set (
"en-alphabetize"
"ru-alphabetize"
"en-ignore-special"
"ru-ignore-special"
)
)
(use-rule-set
:run 1
:rule-set (
"en-resolve-diacritics"
"ru-resolve-diacritics"
"en-ignore-special"
"ru-ignore-special"
)
)
(use-rule-set
:run 2
:rule-set (
"en-resolve-case"
"ru-resolve-case"
"en-ignore-special"
"ru-ignore-special"
)
)
(use-rule-set
:run 3
:rule-set (
"en-resolve-special"
"ru-resolve-special"
)
)


Store this code to multilingual.xdy. And run:

texindy -C utf8 -M multilingual.xdy -o you-paper.ind you-paper.idx


Note: You shouldn't pass language to texindy (i.e. -L russian.), because multilingual.xdy contains description of both languages.

\makeindex [options = -L russian -C utf8 -M latin-alph.xdy]

If you prefer use imakeidx code will be

\makeindex [options = -C utf8 -M multilingual.xdy]


The result will be with latin-first sort order.

By the way, you can change sort order. Just swap language instructions in rule-sets.

• Very interesting! Dec 20, 2017 at 6:59
• I keep getting "ERROR: CHAR: index 0 should be less than the length of the string" when I run texindy May 2, 2018 at 0:18