Sadly, I wasn't able to copy more than just the first of two errors:
! Package unicode-math Error: Cannot be run with pdfLaTeX! (unicode-math) Use XeLaTeX or LuaLaTeX instead.. See the unicode-math package documentation for explanation. Type H <return> for immediate help.
I use LaTeX, and as far as I can see, they want me to use XeTeX. I don't know how to improve the CV to LaTeX code.
If you could give me some tips, links etc. in a comment, I would like to try to find a solution and update my question, so that you don't have to do the work all on your own!