# Change language used for conjunction particle in bibliographic entries

I am trying to get around BibTex. I have successfully added the bibliography and everything works. The only problem is that when i have multiple authors, in the bibliography it places "and" before the last one. I need for it to be "i" as its and in Polish. Is there a way to change the language? Or even better, make it not use and before last author. I am using acm style.

• Possible duplicate of Bibtex using the wrong language! – jk - Reinstate Monica Feb 23 '16 at 16:52
• Which bibliography style do you use? – Mico Feb 23 '16 at 17:01
• I am using acm. – Bremen Feb 23 '16 at 17:02
• To the folks who've voted to close this posting,or who are thinking of voting to close: This posting is not a duplicate of the one @jknappen has identified. The earlier posting was about the `plain` bibliography style. In contrast, the new posting is about the `acm` bibliography style. – Mico Feb 23 '16 at 17:34

It's the bibliography style that tells BibTeX how to format the bibliography. Since you've indicated that you use the `acm` style -- which, incidentally, hasn't been change meaningfully since 1988 -- I suggest you proceed as follows:

• Locate the file `acm.bst` in your TeX distribution. Make a copy of this file and call the copy, say, `acm-i.bst`. Do not edit an original file of the TeX distribution directly.

• Open the file `acm-i.bst` in a text editor; the editor you use to edit your tex files will do fine.

• Replace all three instances of `and "` with `i "`. All three instances of the string `and "` will be preceded by lines that contain `et~al.` as a substring.

• Save the file `acm-i.bst`, either to the directory that contains your main tex file or to a directory that's searched by BibTeX. If you choose the latter option, be sure to update the filename database of your TeX distribution.

• In your main tex file, replace the instruction `\bibliographystyle{acm}` with `\bibliographystyle{acm-i}`, and re-run LaTeX, BibTeX, and LaTeX twice more to fully propagate all changes.

Happy BibTeXing!

• This is exactly what I needed, thank you. Since you know your way around BibTex, maybe you could help me with one more thing? I figured out how to change the edition field to math my requirements, I cannot however handle 2 more things: How to remove the coma after surnames (before name 1st letters)? And second, how to make authors list finish with colon after the dot? I managed to make colon appear before the ending dot only... I would apreciate all help! – Bremen Feb 23 '16 at 22:27
• @ŁukaszPrzeniosło - On the issue of omitting the comma between the surnames and the first initials: On line 196 of `acm-i.bst`, change the string `"{vv~}{ll}{, jj}{, f.}"` to `"{vv~}{ll}{, jj}{ f.}"`. On the second issue: I'm afraid I'm not exactly sure what you're looking to achieve. Please post a new question, in which you explain in more detail what the formatting objective is. – Mico Feb 24 '16 at 2:06
• @ŁukaszPrzeniosło - Just saw your earlier posting again, about formatted entries having to look like `[1] Doe J.: How to format bibliography?. JohnDoe limited, Warsaw, 2015.` Speaking for myself, I find several of the embedded stylistic settings -- e.g., `.:` at the end of the `author` field and `?.` at the end of the `title` field -- nothing short of dreadful. If you really must implement these settings, I suggest you do so by editing the `.bbl` file (which is produced by BibTeX) hand and modifying the contents of the `\bibitem`s to make them conform to the requirements you must satisfy. – Mico Feb 24 '16 at 14:59
• I could actually do that- edit the output file. But I am also kind of trying to understand how does the bibtex code syntax work, so I can change things in the future. As for now, it is very confusing for me. All I got left to figure out is only the `.:` at the end of authors list. Thank you for help. – Bremen Feb 24 '16 at 17:06