# Reducing space between items of reference

I want to reduce the space between items of my references. After reading many related posts and trying various methods, I was still unable to do that :(

I use BibTeX and here is my code (the references are contained in a separated file called "myref.bib"):

\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{article}
\usepackage{CJKutf8}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\usepackage{setspace,lipsum}

\begin{document}

This is the main content.

\begin{spacing}{0.7}
\bibliographystyle{alpha}
\bibliography{myref}
\end{spacing}

\end{document}


With this method, I can reduce the space in each item, however, the space between different entries is still huge. How to reduce them?

• For BibTeX-related questions, providing some example or dummy entries is always helpful. – jon Feb 27 '16 at 5:32
• Use \raggedright after the spacing environment. – Johannes_B Feb 27 '16 at 6:41
• Thank you for your suggestion, but I did not see any significant change of spaces between entries... – Li Yutong Feb 27 '16 at 14:25

## 1 Answer

Rather than reducing the leading (the space between lines of text), it would be preferable to reduce the font size. In the example I use \small, but you could try \footnotesize.

In order to reduce the spacing between items, you can reduce the \itemsep.

\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{article}

\usepackage{etoolbox}
\patchcmd{\thebibliography}
{\settowidth}
{\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt plus 0.1pt}\settowidth}
{}{}
\apptocmd{\thebibliography}
{\small}
{}{}

\begin{document}

This is the main content.

\cite{Abrahams:TI90}

\cite{Barwise:NAMS-36-3-241}

\cite{Knuth:ct-a}

\bibliographystyle{alpha}
\bibliography{texbook1}

\end{document}


The example uses one of the common bibliographic databases available in TeX Live.

If you want to remove all vertical space between items, but I advise not doing it, change the \patchcmd into

\patchcmd{\thebibliography}
{\settowidth}
{\setlength{\parsep}{0pt}\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt plus 0.1pt}\settowidth}
{}{}

• This is exactly what I want!! Thank you very much!! – Li Yutong Feb 28 '16 at 0:52
• I tried this but it does not work with apalike style and article document style. I solved it by adding \itemsep1ex after \begin{thebibliography}{}, see also tex.stackexchange.com/questions/6081/… – peschü Jun 16 '17 at 7:27