# How do I force references to appear at the very end of a document, without placing them on a new page?

I'm writing a document that must be at most two pages long. I'd like for my references (created using Biblatex) to appear at the very end of the document, in a single contiguous block, after all the figures. Currently the references are being split across the first and second pages, with figures appearing "in the middle" of the list of references.

I can't use \clearpage because I don't want to start a new page for the references. I've spent some time googling for this and haven't found an answer yet, although there is probably a simple solution. Many answers discuss figure placement, but it's not clear to me how that applies to bibliography placement.

• Don't float the figures? Hard to say since you've provided absolutely no code for others to suggest how it might be changed.
– jon
Mar 6, 2016 at 5:15
• @jon Thanks. Can you elaborate on what you mean by "don't float the figures"? How do I do that? It doesn't seem trivial to provide a MWE in this case because I can't post the full document, and a reduced version might not reproduce the issue. I suspect someone will know an easy solution -- like what you just said might solve it once I understand what you mean. Mar 6, 2016 at 5:26
• @jon Following your suggestion, I just included the float package and used the H option when declaring my figures (like: \begin{figure}[H]) and it seems to work for my purposes. Thanks. I'll still be interested to hear any further input anyone has. Mar 6, 2016 at 5:30
• I can't really suggest how to do it because I don't know what you are doing. Regarding the MWE, it is sad but true that the word "minimal" does not also mean that only a "minimal" amount of effort will always be required to create the MWE. It is possible that a code snippet regarding your figures will be enough, but it may not be. There are tricks to help you though: use the entries from biblatex's biblatex-examples.bib, dummy text from lipsum.sty, the dummy pictures from mwe.sty.
– jon
Mar 6, 2016 at 5:30

The following should work:

\clearpage % force a pagebreak and flush all deferred table and figure environments
\printbibliography


You should really also look into why the typesetting of some or all table and figure environments is being deferred to the end of the document. E.g., hare you maybe using a positioning specifier such as [h]? To gain an in-depth understanding of the issues that can arise with LaTeX's float placement algorithm, you may want to read Frank Mittelbach's detailed answer to the question How to influence the position of float environments like figure and table in LaTeX? This posting was re-published in 2014 in issue 35:3 of TUGboat, the journal of the TeX Users Group.

• Thank you. The problem with using \clearpage, though, is that my document must be no more than two pages. Mar 6, 2016 at 7:57
• @littleO - I'm afraid that since you've given no details so far as to how you generate the floats, I can't give any other advice. It would be most helpful if you gave some specific examples of how the table and figure environments are being generated; otherwise, it's not possible to understand why LaTeX is trying to place them at the very end of the document. Please consider editing your posting to provide the missing pieces of information.
– Mico
Mar 6, 2016 at 8:47
• Worked like a charm! Apr 25, 2019 at 16:34