I would like to have the colors the gruvbox coloring scheme for (g)vim uses in a lstlisting environment. Is the listings package too dumb to differentiate e.g. between "template", "const" and other keywords so they all get the same color?
Listings only has quite a simple pattern matcher designed to distinguish keywords from punctuation etc. The minted package is more powerful (but requires shell-escape to use an external parser). Minted uses the python pygmetize syntax highlighter, for which there appears to be a gruvbox-style customisation here