# Cassini oval curve in tikz

I am interested in drawing Cassini oval curve that has two foci A(-1,0) , B (1,0) and the other parameter is 3. I found this question but it won't suit my needs since asympote is not compiled by my LaTeX version and I have not worked with it before neither have I gotten to know it.

So, I am wondering if we can do it with tikz instead. In any comment in the linked question it says that someone would translate it to tikz but it does seem to be a link. Maybe I am wrong though and there is somewhere a solution using tikz exclusively.

• Since you're familiar with TikZ, what have you tried so far?
– cfr
Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:10
• math.uchicago.edu/~cstaats/Charles_Staats_III/… might be useful.
– cfr
Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:13
• @cfr Actually I only know basic staff of tikz. Draw something like this , well, I would have no idea where to begin. So, I have tried nothing. Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:33
• If you know Tikz, you can translate my answer (22.5 Plotting a Function etc...). tkz-fct is based on Tikz and uses gnuplot so you need to install gnuplot but for complex function I think it's "indispensable". Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:36

You need to determine a good domain and some coefficients. Update for the color

\documentclass[a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{tkz-fct}

\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=.75]
\tkzInit [xmin=-1,xmax=1,
ymin=-1,ymax=1,
xstep=.2,ystep=.2]
\foreach \i in {4,3.8,...,1.2}    {%
\pgfmathsetmacro{\n}{8*\i}
\tkzFctPolar[domain=-pi:pi,fill=green!\n!white]{%
sqrt(cos(2*t)+sqrt(\i-sin(2*t)*sin(2*t)))}
\tkzFctPolar[domain=-pi:pi,fill=green!\n!white]{%
sqrt(cos(2*t)+sqrt(\i+sin(2*t)*sin(2*t)))}
}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}


• Thanks Alain. One question. How do we fill that , e.g with a color say light green? Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:34
• @Tolaso No problem I updated my answer. you need to use the loop with decreasing numbers Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:45
• engine ? for me lualatex. viewer ? when you compile you get a result ? you have gnuplot installed ? Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 22:36
• Hang on a minute... I have to run it with LuaLaTeX? I have gnuplot installed. Engine is PDFLaTeX... When I compile I do not get a result , just a blank page. P.S: I accepted your answer as it is close to what I want to do. Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 23:43
• OK, solved.. !! I was doing something wrong. Thanks Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 23:59

Polar coordinates seems a good way to draw the curve as plot with the angle as parameter. The radius can be calculated with the second equation of the Wikipedia article.

\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
x=2cm,
y=2cm,
]
\def\samples{180}
\def\c{1}
\pgfmathsetmacro\cc{\c*\c}
\pgfmathsetmacro\cccc{\cc*\cc}
\def\a{1.01}
\foreach\a in {1.001, 1.01, 1.05, 1.1, 1.3, 1.6, 2, 2.5, 3} {
\pgfmathsetmacro\aa{\a*\a}
\pgfmathsetmacro\aaaa{\aa*\aa}
\pgfmathsetmacro\aaaaMcccc{\aaaa - \cccc}
\draw
plot[
variable=\t,
domain=0:360-1/\samples,
samples=\samples,
smooth cycle,
]
(\t:{\cc*sqrt(\cc*cos(2*\t) + sqrt(\cccc*cos(2*\t)*cos(2*\t) + \aaaaMcccc))})
;
}
\path plot[mark=x] coordinates { (-\c, 0) (\c, 0) };
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}


The angle is \t, the foci can be configured with \c. The example shows the curves for different values of \a.

## Lemniscate

In this case \a equals \c, this simplifies the formula. Since the angles are now non-continuous, the curve is drawn in two parts, first the right, then the left. Also filling is shown.

\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
x=2cm,
y=2cm,
]
\def\samples{100}
\def\c{1}
\pgfmathsetmacro\cc{\c*\c}
\pgfmathsetmacro\cccc{\cc*\cc}
\def\a{1.01}
\draw[fill=green!50!white]
(0, 0) --
plot[
variable=\t,
domain=-45+1/\samples:45-1/\samples,
samples=\samples,
smooth,
]
(\t:{\cc*sqrt(\cc*cos(2*\t) + \cc*cos(2*\t))})
-- cycle
;
\draw[fill=green!50!white]
(0, 0) --
plot[
variable=\t,
domain=180-45+1/\samples:180+45-1/\samples,
samples=\samples,
smooth,
]
(\t:{\cc*sqrt(\cc*cos(2*\t) + \cc*cos(2*\t))})
-- cycle
;
\path plot[mark=x] coordinates { (-\c, 0) (\c, 0) };
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}


• Thanks @Heiko . But this does not compile. I get an error of "Package PGF Math Error: I cannot calculate the square-root of the negative nu" Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:49
• Or you can use tikz with gnuplot Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:50
• @Tolaso \a must be greater than \c. The other cases with smaller \a are not implemented, since the question says that the other parameter is 3, three times greater than 1. Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 21:58

Run with xelatex. It uses the implicit defined function and the variables \rA and \rC.

\documentclass[a4paper]{article}
\usepackage{pst-func}

\begin{document}
\psset{unit=2}
\begin{pspicture}(-2.5,-2.5)(2.5,2.5)
\psaxes[labels=none,Dx=0.5,Dy=0.5,ticksize=-3pt 3pt]{->}(0,0)(-2,-2)(2,2)[$x$,-90][$y$,0]
\def\rC{1}
\pgfforeach \rA in {0,0.2,...,1.6}{%
\psplotImp[linewidth=1pt,algebraic,linecolor=blue!60]%
(-3,-3)(3,3){(x^2+y^2)^2-2*\rC^2*(x^2-y^2)-\rA^4+\rC^4}}
\end{pspicture}

\begin{pspicture}(-2.5,-2.5)(2.5,2.5)
\psaxes[labels=none,Dx=0.5,Dy=0.5,ticksize=-3pt 3pt]{->}(0,0)(-2,-2)(2,2)[$x$,-90][$y$,0]
\def\rC{2}
\pgfforeach \rA in {0,0.2,...,2.4}{%
\psplotImp[linewidth=1pt,algebraic,linecolor=red!60]%
(-3,-3)(3,3){(x^2+y^2)^2-2*\rC^2*(x^2-y^2)-\rA^4+\rC^4}}
\end{pspicture}
\end{document}


• Very nice Herbert.. Nice of pstricks... ! Commented Mar 15, 2016 at 22:12