Using BibTeX, I'm trying to add a DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0118(199902)30:2<71::AID-JGT1>3.0.CO;2-G to my bibliography. However, the presence of the < and > characters causes problems.

Is there a good way to add such a DOI?

I'm using a bibliography style which has been processed with urlbst to support DOI and URL fields. My current workaround is to drop the DOI field. Instead I add a field

url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0118(199902)30:2<71::AID-JGT1>3.0.CO;2-G},

which seems to work, but it would be preferable to use the DOI directly.

  • 8
    The DOI spec is broken, for allowing all "the legal graphic characters of Unicode", and Wiley is insane for actually using them (or trying, and failing to do so). Your exmaple is bad with the <>, but try using this one with a # (fragment ident): 10.1002/(SICI)1521-3978(200005)48:5/7<531::AID-PROP531>3.0.CO;2-#. Even after you convince tex to deal with it, good luck getting it to work: doi.org/syntax.html says to encode # as %23 for URLs, which gets past http://dx.doi.org/ but still fails. I'm pretty sure Wiley has come up with a DOI that is impossible to resolve!
    – Lev Bishop
    Sep 13, 2010 at 16:52
  • They usually work from something like JabRef via Firefox for me, but I agree that they are a pain in the neck!
    – Joseph Wright
    Oct 6, 2010 at 10:22
  • maybe this helps: shortdoi.org/10.1002/…
    – matth
    May 12, 2015 at 11:39

3 Answers 3


The actual solution to OP's problem is to encode the < and > signs as their hexadecimal representation:

the "smaller than sign" becomes %3C

the "larger than sign" becomes %3E

If you do this together (!) with using the doi package the links in the bibliography will actually work. More information including other nasty characters can be found here


and here


Failing to do this will result in broken links no matter what.


There is the doi package that gives you the command \doi{...} that will probably do exactly what you want.

  • incidentally, this is the second hit when you google "LaTeX DOI"...
    – Seamus
    Sep 13, 2010 at 11:29
  • How would you mix that with BibTeX?
    – Caramdir
    Sep 13, 2010 at 21:58
  • 1
    doi ={\doi{...}}, I presume...
    – Seamus
    Sep 14, 2010 at 10:10

I was having similar problems with underscores in doi's, and found that using BibLaTeX solved the problem.

  • I'd prefer to stick to BibTeX for now -- I have an otherwise perfectly functional style file and don't have time to switch right now. Sep 16, 2010 at 12:56

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