# How to insert vertical whitespace above and below a tabular environment

I used a tabular in middle of text, but there is little (vertical) space around the table inside the text. How can I increase the margin of this tabular (the distance between horizontal lines of table and the following and preceding paragraphs)?

some text....

\centering
\begin {tabular} {| c  c   c  c |}
\hline
$\tilde {d}$ text & $ein \downarrow$ & $dvc \uparrow$ \\
$\tilde {d}$ text & text & $ein \uparrow$ & $dvc \downarrow$ \\
\hline
\end {tabular}

some text ....

• What do you mean exactly? Increase the distance between vertical rules and contents of the tabular? – Bernard May 21 '16 at 9:41
• @Bernard I edited the question to point that. – Ahmad May 21 '16 at 11:49
• @Ahmad: What are the \ein and \dvc macros? – Bernard May 21 '16 at 11:54
• @Bernard No matter what they are, I changed them to plain text. – Ahmad May 21 '16 at 13:07

## 3 Answers

Here, environment center makes sense, because it adds space:

\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{...}
...
\end{tabular}
\end{center}


Nicer lines are available with package booktabs:

\usepackage{booktabs}
...
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{...}
\toprule
...
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\end{center}


Full example:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage{lipsum}

\begin{document}
\lipsum[2]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{l}
\toprule
First tabular line\\
Second tabular line\\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\lipsum[3]
\end{document}


I can make two suggestions

• Embed the tabular environment in a center environment (and omit the \centering instruction), or

• Embed the tabular environment, along with the \centering instruction, in a table environment, taking care to add [h!] as the positioning specifier in order not to let the environment "float" too far away. This method may be preferable as it makes it straightforward to specify a \caption.

\documentclass{article}

\newcommand\ein{ein} % dummy definitions to make the code compilable
\newcommand\dvc{dvc}

\begin{document}

some text\dots

\begin{center}
\begin {tabular} {|cccc|}
\hline
$\tilde {d}$ text & $\ein \downarrow$ & $\dvc \uparrow$ & \\
$\tilde {d}$ text & text & $\ein \uparrow$ & $\dvc \downarrow$ \\
\hline
\end {tabular}
\end{center}

some text \dots

\begin{table}[h!]
\centering
\begin {tabular} {| c  c   c  c |}
\hline
$\tilde {d}$ text & $\ein \downarrow$ & $\dvc \uparrow$ & \\
$\tilde {d}$ text & text & $\ein \uparrow$ & $\dvc \downarrow$ \\
\hline
\end {tabular}
\end{table}

some text \dots
\end{document}


The cellspace package defines minimal vertu=ical padding at the top and bottom of cells in columnns with specifiers prefixed by the letter S (or C if you use siunitx):

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage{array, cellspace}
\setlength\cellspacetoplimit{4pt}
\setlength\cellspacebottomlimit{4pt}

\begin{document}

some text....

\begin{center}
\begin {tabular} {|*{4}{Sc} |}
\hline
$\tilde {d}$ text & $ein \downarrow$ & $dvc \uparrow$ & \\
$\tilde {d}$ text & text & $ein \uparrow$ & $dvc \downarrow$ \\
\hline
\end {tabular}
\end{center}
some text ..

\end{document}