I am writing an article based on the APS (American Physical Society), Physical Review B article format. This places all footnotes in the numbered bibliography at the end of the article. All citations and footnotes get superscript markers. I'm using:

. . . 
. . .

among other packages.

I am using TeXstudio and I made the bibliography with JabRef. Each footnote is properly placed in the bibliography section at the end of the article, but each one gets a "Note1", "Note2", etc. in front of the footnote text. I can't figure out how to get rid of this. When the .bbl file is created, I get things like:

Note1, \bibinfo{note}{\protect {Bonsall  . . . spherical geometry. See Ref.\protect
  \tmspace +\thickmuskip {.2777em}\protect \onlinecite {name1}, Appx. D.}}

Note2, \bibinfo{note}{\protect {Eq.~\protect \ref {eq:Ecor, a_c} is . . . indices,
\protect \cite {Bonsall1977} and  . . . ``exact''}}.

I deleted some of the text for brevity. \tmspace +\thickmuskip {.2777em} was added by the computer, not by me. The result is: enter image description here Reference #7 is a regular bibliography entry, which is correct. In the footnotes I had to use \protect around all of the text, i.e. \footnote{\protect{...}} because otherwise the first character in the text is automatically set to lower case. I also put \protect in front of the equation and reference citations or I get error messages. These work fine, but I can't get rid of the "Note1, "... I could go into the .bbl file and manually delete these, but then when I recompile the file, the .bbl gets overwritten and I get the same thing again. I also noticed that for entry #9, if I end with "exact.", then the system thinks I don't end with a period so it will insert one automatically and I end up with "exact.".

I tried using the notes2bib and endnotes packages, but these don't help.

  • 2
    Welcome to TeX.SX! You don't get rid of footnotes in the bibliography, because that's the style of Physical Reviews.
    – egreg
    Jun 7, 2016 at 22:02
  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SX! Please help us help you and add a minimal working example (MWE) that illustrates your problem. Reproducing the problem and finding out what the issue is will be much easier when we see compilable code, starting with \documentclass{...} and ending with \end{document}.
    – Dai Bowen
    Nov 19, 2016 at 19:48
  • egreg, Inquisitor is asking about the text "Note1" that is being added to the footnotes as they appear in the bibliography. Dec 4, 2020 at 17:28

4 Answers 4


The apsrev bibliography style should be used with the correct version number: In this case \bibliographystyle{apsrev} should be replaced by \bibliographystyle{apsrev4-1}. I guess the version number should be the same as the one used in the document class (\documentclass[...]{revtex4-1}).

Just for completeness: The REVTEX 4.2 Author’s Guide mentions that the \bibliographystyle{...} macro should be used in the preamble (before \begin{document}), which differs from standard LaTeX.

  • I don't remember if Lamport is specific on this, but when I taught LaTeX classes, I always said that the \bibliographystyle command should go in the preamble, and I would consider this to be “standard LaTeX.” LaTeX won't enforce this (for backwards compatibility reasons) and in practice it won't make a difference where the command appears, but in general, you want to have all declarations of style in the preamble and not scattered about the document.
    – Don Hosek
    Jul 11, 2021 at 3:13

Try putting this in the preamble.

\usepackage[convert-footnotes]{notes2bib}%comments and endnotes in the %bibliography

note-name = ,
use-sort-key = false

Worked for me, but I am not using APS style. I have:



One can use footinbib or nofootinbib as an optional argument in the document class. In revtex4.2 the former is default (see authors guide VII). For instance the full document class could read as:


For PRB footnotes are allowed on the page they appear (See PRB page). For most other APS journals the footnotes need to appear in the bibliography.


Try getting rid of \bibliographystyle{apsrev} (I think the prb specification in your document class should automatically call the correct bibliography style file).

  • ..."[you] think"? Can you please confirm whether this is valid?
    – Werner
    Aug 19, 2016 at 21:27
  • 2
    Removing \bibliographystyle{apsrev} doesn't work.
    – Inquisitor
    Dec 4, 2016 at 13:57
  • Note that changing the bibliography style did work for me. That is, keep the command \bibliographystyle{<name>} but replace what's in <name>. I don't know how to solve this problem if it's necessary for you to use apsrev. Dec 4, 2020 at 17:32

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