In practical, real-world use, most authors today will save the source in UTF-8, load a TrueType or OpenType Arabic font, and compile with XeLaTeX or LuaLaTeX. A list of TrueType or OpenType Arabic fonts would not be specific to TeX or LaTeX. There are a few additions to that list that are worth noting for someone working in LaTeX, however.
In the Modern Toolchain
Khaled Hosny, the designer of Amiri, also created the Libertinus font family (based on free fonts by Philipp H. Poll), which make excellent companion fonts to Amiri—and, particularly relevant to LaTeX, include an OpenType math font, Libertinus Math. Hosny also made XITS Math, converted and extended the STIX fonts. Libertinus and XITS have the best support for Arabic and Persian mathematics of any free font, as well as other features most other math fonts lack, including support for
\boldmath. (Dr. Hosny also collaborated on one other OpenType math font, Neo Euler, but it has none of these features and is incomplete.)
There are some Arabic fonts for legacy packages, which you might still need to compile an old document, and I’ve occasionally still seen in use. Conventional seven- and eight-bit encodings were never very suitable for Arabic, but the
arabtex package defined the
xnsh14 pseudo-font, and also supported an older
nash14 pseudo-font, as well as bold variants. The original sources for these are in METAFONT. The
farsitex package is similar.
arabi package offers different local encodings for Arabic and Farsi. There is a table in the manual of the fonts it supports. Of these, the Arabeyes Project fonts were also available in a PostScript format.
There were never any other Arabic fonts made specifically for TeX, at least that are still available from CTAN.