Is there an apt-get command that can install AASTex on Ubuntu? What other packages and software would be recommended for using this?
You can use
apt-cache search to see what's available in your repos. In your case:
jawguy@salix:~/$ apt-cache search aastex texlive-publishers - TeX Live: Publisher styles, theses, etc.
So, there's something in the package texlive-publishers which is related to aastex. You can see the file list of a particular package on the web:
(swap 'precise' for your version)
And, you'll notice that /usr/share/texmf-texlive/tex/latex/aastex/aastex.cls /usr/share/texmf-texlive/tex/latex/aastex/aastex.sty
Are in that list. So it seems like you just want to
sudo apt-get install texlive-publishers and that should be that.