I searched far and wide for a solution to this, but the one topic that could have procured an answer was closed (which didn't make sense to me?).
I have a .tex document in TexWorks that was installed with MikTex that, after trying to input a jpeg figure, made TexWorks crash and stop working. So I commented out the lines to insert the figure, but still every time I try to compile the document, TexWorks crashes. When I compile any other .tex document, however, it works and has no issue.
After trying to find out the issue I typed pdflatex -v in my terminal and received the error: Sorry, but pdflatex did not succeed. It then showed me a log file that I could check, and after doing so the error message I received was:
2016-06-22 10:45:22,556-0400 FATAL pdflatex - The command line options could not be processed. 2016-06-22 10:45:22,557-0400 FATAL pdflatex - Info: optionError="unknown option" 2016-06-22 10:45:22,557-0400 FATAL pdflatex - Source: Libraries\MiKTeX\TeXAndFriends\webapp.cpp 2016-06-22 10:45:22,557-0400 FATAL pdflatex - Line: 270