# Why some citations work while others don't?

It is hard for me to understand why some citations would work and the other wouldn't?

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I would like to cite \citep{Laroche2001} and \citep{Thogersen2002} and \citep{Young2010}

\bibliographystyle{apalike}

\bibliography{LiteratureSust}

\end{document}


These are the citations, where 1st and 3rd work but 2nd doesn't work):

@InCollection{Thogersen2002,
author = {Thogersen, J.},
title = {Promoting "green'' consumer behavior with eco- labels},
booktitle = {New tools for environmental protection: Education, information, and voluntary measures},
pages = {83-104},
publisher = {Washington DC: National Academy Press},
editor = {In T. Dietz \& P. Stern (Eds.)},
year = {2002},
}
@ARTICLE{Laroche2001,
AUTHOR =       "Laroche, M. and Bergeron, J. and Barbaro-Forleo, G.",
TITLE =        "Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products",
JOURNAL =      "Journal of Consumer Marketing,",
YEAR =         "2001",
volume =       "18",
number =       "6",
pages =        "503-520",
}

@ARTICLE{Young2010,
AUTHOR =       " Young, W. and Hwang, K and  McDonald, S. and  Oates, C. J.",
TITLE =        "Sustainable consumption: Green consumer behaviour when purchasing products",
JOURNAL =      "Sustainable Development,",
YEAR =         "2010",
volume =       "18",
number =       "1",
pages =        " 20-31",
}


After following one of the comments, this is what I have now:

    This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.16 (TeX Live 2015) (preloaded format=pdflatex)
restricted \write18 enabled.
entering extended mode
(./Sustainability_Compreh_Paper.tex
LaTeX2e <2015/01/01>
Babel <3.9l> and hyphenation patterns for 79 languages loaded.
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/article.cls
Document Class: article 2014/09/29 v1.4h Standard LaTeX document class
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/size12.clo))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/geometry/geometry.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/keyval.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/ifpdf.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/ifvtex.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/ifxetex/ifxetex.sty))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsmath/amsmath.sty
For additional information on amsmath, use the ?' option.
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsmath/amstext.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsmath/amsgen.sty))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsmath/amsbsy.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsmath/amsopn.sty))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amscls/amsthm.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsfonts/amssymb.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsfonts/amsfonts.sty))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/graphicx.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/graphics.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/trig.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/latexconfig/graphics.cfg)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/pdftex-def/pdftex.def
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/infwarerr.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/ltxcmds.sty))))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/tools/verbatim.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/setspace/setspace.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/natbib/natbib.sty)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/comment/comment.sty
Excluding comment 'comment') (./Sustainability_Compreh_Paper.aux)
*geometry* driver: auto-detecting
*geometry* detected driver: pdftex
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/context/base/supp-pdf.mkii
) (/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/pdftexcmds.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/ifluatex.sty))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/oberdiek/epstopdf-base.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/oberdiek/grfext.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/kvdefinekeys.sty))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/oberdiek/kvoptions.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/kvsetkeys.sty
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/generic/oberdiek/etexcmds.sty)))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/latexconfig/epstopdf-sys.cfg))
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsfonts/umsa.fd)
(/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsfonts/umsb.fd)

LaTeX Warning: No \author given.

Package natbib Warning: Citation EPA2016' on page 1 undefined on input line 54
.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Boyle2009' on page 1 undefined on input line
56.

Package natbib Warning: Citation EPA2016' on page 1 undefined on input line 57
.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Linton2007' on page 1 undefined on input line
57.

Package natbib Warning: Citation CocaCola2015' on page 1 undefined on input li
ne 57.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Knickle2011' on page 1 undefined on input lin
e 57.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Nestle2015' on page 1 undefined on input line
57.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Kraft2015' on page 1 undefined on input line
57.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Canada2009' on page 1 undefined on input line
57.

[1{/usr/local/texlive/2015/texmf-var/fonts/map/pdftex/updmap/pdftex.map}]

Package natbib Warning: Citation UN2005' on page 2 undefined on input line 64.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Gleim2013' on page 2 undefined on input line
64.

Package natbib Warning: Citation CR2007' on page 2 undefined on input line 64.

Package natbib Warning: Citation luchs2010' on page 2 undefined on input line
64.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Balakrishnan2014' on page 2 undefined on inpu
t line 70.

[2]

Package natbib Warning: Citation Johnsson1998' on page 3 undefined on input li
ne 74.

[3] [4] [5] <7.jpg, id=23, 2081.7775pt x 1513.655pt> <use 7.jpg> [6 <./7.jpg>]
[7] [8] [9] Excluding 'comment' comment. [10] [11]
<3.jpg, id=45, 2081.7775pt x 1513.655pt> <use 3.jpg>
Underfull \hbox (badness 10000) in paragraph at lines 242--243

Overfull \hbox (25.84772pt too wide) in paragraph at lines 291--294
\OT1/cmr/m/n/12 bil-ity func-tion, such that in-creas-ing $\OML/cmm/m/it/12 x$
\OT1/cmr/m/n/12 by 1 im-plies chang-ing fail-ure prob-a-bil-ity from \$[][\OMS/c
msy/m/n/12 ^^@ []\OT1/cmr/m/n/12 (\OML/cmm/m/it/12 ^^L[] \OT1/cmr/m/n/12 +
[12 <./3.jpg>] Excluding 'comment' comment. [13] Excluding 'comment' comment.
Excluding 'comment' comment. Excluding 'comment' comment.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Young2010' on page 14 undefined on input line
427.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Laroche2001' on page 14 undefined on input li
ne 429.

Package natbib Warning: Citation Bronnenberg2008' on page 14 undefined on inpu
t line 430.

(./Sustainability_Compreh_Paper.bbl)

Package natbib Warning: There were undefined citations.

[14] (./Sustainability_Compreh_Paper.aux) )
(\end occurred inside a group at level 1)

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Output written on Sustainability_Compreh_Paper.pdf (14 pages, 685179 bytes).
SyncTeX written on Sustainability_Compreh_Paper.synctex.gz.
Transcript written on Sustainability_Compreh_Paper.log.


EDIT2: I do have these codes and still receive errors.

FINAL UPDATE:

I found the cause of my question marks in the document. In the LaTeX coding, I didn't include \usepackage{url}'. I didn't know that for url citations you need that code (and in the original file, I had a plenty of them). Once I included it, everything worked.

• I have no problem generating the cross references right. Could you please what exactly the problem with second reference. Otherwise, please remove the .bbl file and do pdflatex filename; bibtex filename; pdflatex filename; pdflatex filename. – Jagath Jul 27 '16 at 3:06
• It just says that that the author is undefined. – Olga Jul 27 '16 at 3:08
• Your authors are incorrectly entered in the .bib file. – Alan Munn Jul 27 '16 at 3:13
• From the log file it is apparent that the document you're compiling is not the one you show. I say this after seeing \end occurred inside a group at level 1 – egreg Jul 27 '16 at 20:15
• The current version (the simplified one that you show) compiles fine for me. Do you actually have a problem with that particular set of files? If yes, please edit the log file to correspond to the example file you show. If no, please go back to your original file and try to make a minimal example – Willie Wong Jul 27 '16 at 20:16

This answer addresses the original version of the question, and reflects problems with the posted code and bibliography entries.

The correct way to enter the Author field in a .bib file is:

Surname1, FirstName and Surname2, FirstName2 and Surname3, FirstName3


You need to separate each name with and and separate surnames from first names (or initials) with a comma. The order must always be Surname, FirstName for all names.

Although some other formats will work, (for example FirstName LastName will be treated correctly but will fail with two name surnames, for example) the method using Surname, FirstName is the best practice to get into the habit of doing.

There are other problems with the particular .bib entries you posted:

• commas in some fields e.g. after journal names
• formatting in the editor field; this field should contain only names, entered in the same way as regular author names
• page numbers with hyphens (-) instead of en-dashes (--); this is not always necessary to do, but is also a good habit to get into

But none of these issues will result in the problem you are describing in your edited question because you are posting errors from a different document. The document you posted plus the exact .bib entries you posted will produce a compilable document. Although the formatting of the bibliography will be incorrect, the document will produce no errors.

• This suggestion unfortunately doesn't fix the problem that I have. – Olga Jul 27 '16 at 10:42
• @Olga Did you run bibtex? – user10274 Jul 27 '16 at 19:53
• @MarcvanDongen I did as suggested in the order pdflatex, bibtex, pdflatex, pdflatex. – Olga Jul 27 '16 at 20:03
• @Olga: have you in fact fixed the author name ordering problem that Alan suggested? If so, please edit your original post to reflect that. As it reads currently the author lists in the second and third entries in your example is still not right. – Willie Wong Jul 27 '16 at 20:06
• @WillieWong, here it is. – Olga Jul 27 '16 at 20:18