This is a problem with MiKTeX. You have to complain with MiKTeX developer because the *tex programs included in that distribution give fewer details when one uses the
file:line:error message style, that is supposed to give more information. You can add a comment to this bug report: https://sourceforge.net/p/miktex/bugs/2310/
In order to workaround this issue you have to set
nil by either using M-x
TeX-file-line-error RET, or adding the following line to your init file:
(setq TeX-file-line-error nil)
See also the Frequently Asked Questions in AUCTeX manual:
8. Why does
TeX-next-error (C-c `) fail?
TeX-file-line-error is set to
nil (not the default), these sort of failures might be related to the
the fact that when writing the log file, TeX puts information related
to a file, including error messages, between a pair of parentheses. In
this scenario AUCTeX determines the file where the error happened by
parsing the log file and counting the parentheses. This can fail when
there are other, unbalanced parentheses present.
file:line:error messages for the log file usually
solves this issue, as these kind of messages are are easier to parse;
however, they may lack some details. Activation can be done either in
the configuration of your TeX system (consult its manual to see where
this is) or by simply keeping the variable
TeX-file-line-error to the
default value of non-nil.
See also Uninformative error message when using AUCTeX