3

If I compile the two columns they are not exactly aligned at the bottom. The right column is not foot-on-foot with the left one. I have no idea why. It is only on the first page. Also I would like to be able to decide where the title is positioned, e.g. move everything two lines up.

Edit:

So far I figured out that it has something to do with the titlepage. If I remove the titlepage, the columns are aligned again.

\documentclass[twocolumn]{scrartcl}

\usepackage{scrlayer-scrpage}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage{amsmath,amsfonts,amssymb,amsthm,amsopn}
\usepackage{blindtext}


\title{Doppler-free Saturation Absorption Spectroscopy of Caesium}
\author{Example Name, Other Example, Another E.}
\publishers{%
\itshape\small%
\vspace{0.8cm}
\parbox{0.9\linewidth}{%
  In this experiment we measure the frequency of the spectral absorption 
  lines of the hyperfine structure of gaseous caesium. The technique of the 
  saturation spectroscopy, allows to overcome the doppler broadening of the 
  spectral lines and, thanks to the crossover signals, to discriminate 
  between series of transitions which share a common state.
  }
}

\setkomafont{disposition}{\bfseries}

\begin{document}
\maketitle
\phantom{---}
\section{Introduction}
  \blindtext[10]
\end{document}
1

The problem here is not the titlepage, it is the size needed for the \section heading etc. To be able to show that to you I added a second heading and text to your code. Now you have the problem on two pages, caused by the \section command.

To avoid this you should use class oprtion heading=normal to get not so big headings (with to much glue) and to add command \raggedbottom to have the last line of the page always on the same place.

I added package showframe to visualize the used typing area and margins ...

MWE (see important changings marked with <================):

\documentclass[%
  twocolumn,
  headings=normal, % normal, big, small <===============================
]{scrartcl}

\usepackage{scrlayer-scrpage}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{lmodern}
\usepackage{amsmath,amsfonts,amssymb,amsthm,amsopn}
\usepackage{blindtext,showframe} % <====================================


\title{Doppler-free Saturation Absorption Spectroscopy of Caesium}
\author{Example Name, Other Example, Another E.}
\publishers{%
%\itshape\small%
\normalsize
\vspace{0.8cm}
\parbox{0.9\linewidth}{%
  In this experiment we measure the frequency of the spectral absorption 
  lines of the hyperfine structure of gaseous caesium. The technique of the 
  saturation spectroscopy, allows to overcome the doppler broadening of the 
  spectral lines and, thanks to the crossover signals, to discriminate 
  between series of transitions which share a common state.
  }
}

\setkomafont{disposition}{\bfseries}
\raggedbottom % <=======================================================
%\flushbottom


\begin{document}
\maketitle
\phantom{---}
\section{Introduction}
\blindtext[10]
\section{Section two} % <===============================================
\blindtext[10]        % <===============================================
\end{document}

and the wished result (to visualize the wrong spaces please just comment line 3 of the mwe % headings=normal,:

enter image description here

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