I'm totally new to all this.

Here is my BibTex source from Jabref

{@Article{Butt, author = {Butt, H.J. and Cappella, B. and Kappl, M.}, title = {Force measurements with the atomic force microscope: Technique, interpretation and applications}, journal = {Surface Science Reports}, year = {2005}, volume = {59}, number = {1–-6}, pages = {1 - 152}, doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfrep.2005.08.003}, issn = {0167-5729}, keywords = {Atomic force microscope, Force curves, Surface forces }, url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167572905000488}, }

I copied this from a downloadable .bib file the hyphen shows correctly in the 'pages' part but not the volume part. (initially it was just (-) I changed it to (--) after looking around but it didn't really help, I also tried ( - ) like in the pages part.

This is how it outputs

H.J. Butt, B. Cappella, and M. Kappl. Force measurements with the atomic force microscope: Technique, interpretation and applications. Surface Science Reports, 59(1â-6):1 - 152, 2005.

(actually before adding the double hyphen I just got â so adding the double hyphen did get a hyphen to appear but didn't get rid of the â)

This is the LaTeX error description that shows in LyX:

...lock {\em Surface Science Reports}, 59(1†“-6):1 -- 152, 2005. You need to provide a definition with \DeclareInputText or \DeclareInputMath before using this key. Blockquote

I'm not sure where or how I would put these definitions so haven't tried.

The same thing is happening with this BibTex source too

{@Article{Gross, author = {Leo Gross}, title = {Recent advances in submolecular resolution with scanning probe microscopy}, journal = {Nature Chemistry}, year = {2011}, volume = {3}, pages = {273–-278}, } In the pages section.


If it matters I was using natbib but changed it to default, no help.

  • are you using bibtex or biber, something is generating utf8 but tex is apparently expecting latin1 so any multi-byte utf8 character is being garbled and coming out with nonsense starting with accented a (usual sign of mis-interpreted utf-8) – David Carlisle Oct 13 '16 at 18:23

You need to use two - if using the -- ligature,

For example your:



  U+007b LEFT CURLY BRACKET     { { \lbrace
  U+0032 DIGIT TWO     2
  U+0037 DIGIT SEVEN     7
  U+0033 DIGIT THREE     3
  U+2013 EN DASH     – \textendash
  U+002d HYPHEN-MINUS     -
  U+0032 DIGIT TWO     2
  U+0037 DIGIT SEVEN     7
  U+0038 DIGIT EIGHT     8
  U+007d RIGHT CURLY BRACKET     } } \rbrace

Note the first dash is U+2013 not U+002D (–not-)

  • Wow. That is remarkable I didn't even notice the difference. How do I specify which dash I want I just hit the dash on my keyboard and have now fixed the issue using copy and paste. – J.B92 Oct 13 '16 at 18:36
  • @J.B92 no idea about your keyboard mapping, that's editor and operating system specific so not really tex related, also I wasn't clear how far back in the workflow the en-dash is in the file, in the input to jabref? or its output (I've never used jabref:-) – David Carlisle Oct 13 '16 at 18:42
  • Okay thanks. I'll just save a copy ready to be pasted. – J.B92 Oct 13 '16 at 19:00

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