# How to neatly align long equations one below each other

I have seven different equations which I want to left align.

Below is the code I am using to align the equations:

$$\phi_{1} \; = \; n_{20} + n_{02}$$

$$\phi_{2} \; = \; (n_{20} - n_{02})^2 + 4n_{11}^2$$

$$\phi_{3} \; = \; n_{30} - n_{12}^2 + 3n_{21} - n_{03}^2$$

$$\phi_{4} \; = \; n_{30} + n_{12}^2 + 3n_{21} + n_{03}^2$$

\begin{multline}
\phi_{5} \; = \; (n_{30} - 3n_{12})(n_{30} + n_{12})[(n_{30} + n_{12}^2) -3(n_{30} + n_{12})^2] + (3n_{12} - n_{03})(n_{21} + n_{03})[3(n_{30} + n_ {12})^2 - (n_{21} + n_{03})^2]
\end{multline}

$$\phi_{6} \; = \; (n_{20} - n_{02})[(n_{30} + n_{12}^2) - (n_{21} + n_{03})^2] + 4n_{11}(n_{30} + n_{12})(n_{21} + n_{03})$$

$$\phi_{7} \; = \; (3n_{21} - n_{03})(n_{30} + n_{12})[(n_{30} + n_{12})^2 - 3(n_{21} + n_{03})^2] + (3n_{12} - n_{30})(n_{21} + n_{03})[3(n_{30} + n_{12})^2 - (n_{21} + n_{03}^2)]$$


I want the equations to be left align and evenly spaced on each line, i.e. if an equation is too long it should go on to the next line.

• (1) welcome, (2) use align to collect them all (no real need for multline, break a line in align instead. Don't use \; = \;, it is a wast of time and you end up with a setup looking uneven. Nov 21, 2016 at 11:25
• (3) for left aligned equations (to the whole document) use the class option fleqn. Nov 21, 2016 at 11:31
• Hi there, thanks...i don't want all the equations in the document to be left align. Just the above ones Nov 21, 2016 at 11:36
• Equation line breaking: tex.stackexchange.com/questions/3782/… For left aligning equations: tex.stackexchange.com/questions/54478/… Nov 21, 2016 at 11:37
• @Avi Maikoo: To left-align only a group of equations, please see the answer to a recent similar question. Nov 21, 2016 at 13:35

A single align environment seems right, plus additional line breaks for equations 5, 6, and 7; the second halves of these equations are indented (by the amount of \quad) relative to the first halves. Note that I've performed alignment on the = symbols, not full left-alignment.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\begin{document}
\begin{align}
\phi_{1} &= n_{20} + n_{02}\\
\phi_{2} &= (n_{20} - n_{02})^2 + 4n_{11}^2\\
\phi_{3} &= n_{30} - n_{12}^2 + 3n_{21} - n_{03}^2\\
\phi_{4} &= n_{30} + n_{12}^2 + 3n_{21} + n_{03}^2\\
\phi_{5} &= (n_{30} - 3n_{12})(n_{30} + n_{12})[(n_{30} + n_{12}^2) -3(n_{30} + n_{12})^2] \notag\\
&\quad+ (3n_{12} - n_{03})(n_{21} + n_{03})[3(n_{30} + n_ {12})^2 - (n_{21} + n_{03})^2]\\
\phi_{6} &= (n_{20} - n_{02})[(n_{30} + n_{12}^2) - (n_{21} + n_{03})^2] \notag\\
&\quad+ 4n_{11}(n_{30} + n_{12})(n_{21} + n_{03})\\
\phi_{7} &= (3n_{21} - n_{03})(n_{30} + n_{12})[(n_{30} + n_{12})^2 - 3(n_{21} + n_{03})^2] \notag\\
&\quad+ (3n_{12} - n_{30})(n_{21} + n_{03})[3(n_{30} + n_{12})^2 - (n_{21} + n_{03}^2)]
\end{align}
\end{document}


You can use align and split:

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{amsmath}

\begin{document}

\begin{align}
\phi_{1} &= n_{20} + n_{02}
\\
\phi_{2} &= (n_{20} - n_{02})^2 + 4n_{11}^2
\\
\phi_{3} &= n_{30} - n_{12}^2 + 3n_{21} - n_{03}^2
\\
\phi_{4} &= n_{30} + n_{12}^2 + 3n_{21} + n_{03}^2
\\
\begin{split}
\phi_{5} &= (n_{30} - 3n_{12})(n_{30} + n_{12})[(n_{30} + n_{12}^2) -3(n_{30} + n_{12})^2] \\
&\qquad+ (3n_{12} - n_{03})(n_{21} + n_{03})[3(n_{30} + n_ {12})^2 - (n_{21} + n_{03})^2]
\end{split}
\\
\begin{split}
\phi_{6} &= (n_{20} - n_{02})[(n_{30} + n_{12}^2) - (n_{21} + n_{03})^2] \\
&\qquad+ 4n_{11}(n_{30} + n_{12})(n_{21} + n_{03})
\end{split}
\\
\begin{split}
\phi_{7} &= (3n_{21} - n_{03})(n_{30} + n_{12})[(n_{30} + n_{12})^2 - 3(n_{21} + n_{03})^2] \\
&\qquad+ (3n_{12} - n_{30})(n_{21} + n_{03})[3(n_{30} + n_{12})^2 - (n_{21} + n_{03}^2)]
\end{split}
\end{align}

\end{document}


What's the difference with just align and \notag? The equation number in a split is vertically centered (unless the tbtags option is passed to amsmath).

• How can I make align align left instead of right? Sep 17, 2019 at 23:20
• @GerardoZinno Isn't this left aligned? Sep 18, 2019 at 8:11