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Why the space between dot and next sentence of paragraph is sometimes like semispace and sometimes space? I want to arrange all as semi space. How can I do it? Another thing, when I am using \section{Introduction}, it gives me as 1 Introduction but the space between 1 and introduction is bigger than what I need is there anyway to change it?

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    Your two questions are not related (it would be better to ask them separately) spacing in a paragraph is flexible to justify the text at the margins so inter word and end of sentence space will typically vary. The space in a heading is part of the heading definition , usually in the document class you are using, like everything else, it can be changed but the details depend on the original definition about which you have provided no clues. – David Carlisle Dec 13 '16 at 17:42
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    If I undersand you correctly, your first issue can be addressed by using the \frenchspacing macro. (Just write it somewhere in the preamble.) For fine-tuning the formatting of section titles, have a look at the titlesec package. – Michael Palmer Dec 13 '16 at 18:13
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  1. Use \frenchspacing (somewhere in your preamble/before \begin{document}); it sets the space factor after punctuation to be the same. From the LaTeX kernel:

    \def\frenchspacing{\sfcode`\.\@m \sfcode`\?\@m \sfcode`\!\@m
      \sfcode`\:\@m \sfcode`\;\@m \sfcode`\,\@m}
    

    In the above code, \@m is defined to be 1000. As comparison, here's the definition of \nonfrenchspacing:

    \def\nonfrenchspacing{\sfcode`\.3000\sfcode`\?3000\sfcode`\!3000%
      \sfcode`\:2000\sfcode`\;1500\sfcode`\,1250 }
    

    Note how there exists different (larger) spacing after ., ? and ! than for :, ; and ,.

  2. Sectional units set their headings in two parts: (1) <number><space> (2) <title>. The first part is set using \@seccntformat which is a macro that formats a generic sectional counter. Here's the definition:

    \def\@seccntformat#1{\csname the#1\endcsname\quad}
    

    For any counter <seccounter>, it calls \the<seccounter> which prints the actual counter and then inserts a \quad. \quad is defined to be \hspace{1em}, which is font-dependent. If you want to change this space to something more suitable for you, you can add

    \makeatletter
    \def\@seccntformat#1{\csname the#1\endcsname\hspace{<space>}}
    \makeatother
    

    to your preamble for some suitable <space>. If you just want a regular, inter-word space, you \space instead of \hspace{<space>}.

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