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I'm writing a journal paper using "AO_JOSA_OL-LaTeX" template. However, the references are looking like the below. my question is how can I align the references?

enter image description here

To look like this, thanks

enter image description here

This is the code

\documentclass[9pt,twocolumn,twoside]{osajnl}
\journal{ao}  
\begin{document}

\begin{thebibliography}{1}
\bibitem{1}Reference 1
\bibitem{2}Reference 2.
\bibitem{3}Reference 3.
\bibitem{4}Reference 4.
\bibitem{5}Reference 5.
\bibitem{6}Reference 6.
\bibitem{7}Reference 7.
\bibitem{8}Reference 8.
\bibitem{9}Reference 9.
\bibitem{10}Reference 10.
\bibitem{11}Reference 11.
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}
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  • 1
    Normally, I'd expect the output to look like the second image. You need to show us the (relevant! - not all) code you use to produce the bibliography list. Please prepare an MWE for that. But note that you normally can't modify a journal template - after all they gave you that template to work with. If it gives sub-par output, complain to the editors of the journal. Since the template doesn't seem to use biblatex, I have retagged your question.
    – moewe
    Commented Dec 19, 2016 at 8:20
  • the marked references have two-digit numbers. you have allowed for only one digit in the mandatory argument to \begin{thebibliography}; change that from {1} to {10} or some other two-digit number. Commented Dec 19, 2016 at 15:08

1 Answer 1

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The second argument in \begin{thebibliography}{10} gives the width of the label, so if you have two digit numbers, you should place a two digit number there.

As barbara beeton pointed out in her comment any 2 digit number should do the trick. In the special case you use a font where the digits have different widths, give the widest one, e.g. 10 and not 11.

(I don't have you documentclass, so I replaced it by article)

\documentclass[9pt,twocolumn,twoside]{article}
\begin{document}

\begin{thebibliography}{10}
\bibitem{1}Reference 1
\bibitem{2}Reference 2.
\bibitem{3}Reference 3.
\bibitem{4}Reference 4.
\bibitem{5}Reference 5.
\bibitem{6}Reference 6.
\bibitem{7}Reference 7.
\bibitem{8}Reference 8.
\bibitem{9}Reference 9.
\bibitem{10}Reference 10.
\bibitem{11}Reference 11.
\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}

enter image description here

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  • typically, digits used by tex are uniform in width, so any two-digit number should suffice. (i usually use {99}.) Commented Dec 19, 2016 at 15:09
  • @barbarabeeton In general you should be right. I ran into this problem once with some font package (I cannot remember the name right now), so I thought rather be save then sorry... Commented Dec 19, 2016 at 15:16
  • a reasonable qualification. something special has to be done to make numerals behave properly while being different in text and in tables; math is a bit of a wild card ... Commented Dec 19, 2016 at 18:50

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