I use \usepackage[superscript]{cite} in my LaTeX. But it gives "...analysis. $^{?}$". I want text citation like "...analysis. $^{1}$". How should I do for this?



\newcommand\BibTeX{{\rmfamily B\kern-.05em \textsc{i\kern-.025em b}\kern-.08em


The performance … \cite{Venables et al.}. 


\bibitem[Venables et al.(2016)]{Venables et al.}
Venables~WN, Smith~DM and the R Core Team. Notes on R: a programming environment for data analysis and graphics.


  • (1) welcome, (2) we need to know more about your document. A simple guess: you either have not compiled enough times, have misspelled the citation key or have forgotten to run bibtex.
    – daleif
    Commented Dec 23, 2016 at 7:56
  • Update your question with this information. Citation keys should not contain spaces. You are not using bibtex I can see. Did you compile enough times? I'm not at a pc so cannot test
    – daleif
    Commented Dec 23, 2016 at 8:06
  • I added more information. Thanks in advance.
    – user121684
    Commented Dec 23, 2016 at 8:08
  • Tip if you highlight the code in the editor and hit ctrl-k every thing gets indented and the code is nicely formatted. That bibtex command is irrelevant for the example.
    – daleif
    Commented Dec 23, 2016 at 8:10
  • 1
    Also for those trying to help, where does one get the sagej class. Btw does the citation work without the superscript option? Does the example work if you use the article class instead.
    – daleif
    Commented Dec 23, 2016 at 8:12

1 Answer 1


First, you can get the sagej class here (download link in Abstract).

Second, I would recommend using natbib package with option super. Here is what the minimal code looks like




This is the cited text \cite{jd12}, here is another one \citet{jd13}
and here \citep{jd14}



The mybib.bib contains

 author={Doe, J. and Bar, F. and Smith, J.},
 title={Some title 1},
 journal={Some journal},

 author={Doe, J. and Smith, J. and Bar, F.},
 title={Some title 2},
 journal={Some journal},

 author={Doe, J. and Simpson, H. and Bar, F.},
 title={Some title 3},
 journal={Some journal},

After compiling I get the following pdf, where you may notice what different citation commands (used above) do. I guess you wanted the result produced by \cite{}. enter image description here

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