1

In a continuation of my previous post (see here ), the number of observations is also not ''aligned'' (centred) in the Table below, even when I put them between brackets {}. How can one solve this problem?

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}%
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}%
\usepackage[textwidth=155mm,top=23.5mm,bottom=23.5mm,
     footskip=40pt,heightrounded, showframe]{geometry}
\usepackage{rotating}
\usepackage[skip=0.33\baselineskip]{caption}
\usepackage[table,xcdraw]{xcolor}
\usepackage[flushleft]{threeparttable}
\usepackage{threeparttablex} %
\usepackage{ragged2e}%
\usepackage{setspace}
\usepackage{siunitx}
\usepackage{booktabs, makecell}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\usepackage{pdflscape}
\usepackage{longtable}
\newcolumntype{L}{>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}X}
\newcommand\vn[1]{\mathrm{#1}}
\onehalfspacing

\begin{document}

\begin{table}[H]
    \sisetup{
        output-exponent-marker = \text{e},
        exponent-product={},
        retain-explicit-plus,
        input-open-uncertainty = ,
        input-close-uncertainty = ,
        table-align-text-pre = false,
        table-align-text-post = false,
        round-mode=places,
        round-precision=3,
        table-space-text-pre = (,
        table-space-text-post = ),
        table-number-alignment=center}
    \centering\small\renewcommand{\cellalign}{tl}
    \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.3}
    \begin{threeparttable}
        \caption{Estimation Results Eq. (11) Kim and Wright (2005) measure}
        \begin{tabularx}{\linewidth}{X} 
            \begin{tabular}[t]{l*{1}{S[table-format=2.6, table-space-text-post = {***}]}@{}}
                \toprule
                \multicolumn{1}{l}{Variable} & \multicolumn{1}{l}{US TP K\&W}  \\
                \midrule
                Constant           & 0.008198     \\
                $\Delta y_{t-1}$   & 0.001881     \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{QE 1}} \\
                \midrule
                25-11-2008         & -16.77163*** \\
                25-11-2008 ($t+1$) & -6.596715    \\
                01-12-2008         & -17.43656*** \\
                01-12-2008 ($t+1$) & -2.915418    \\
                16-12-2008         & -11.89921*** \\
                16-12-2008 ($t+1$) & -11.95582*** \\
                28-01-2009         & 8.527938***  \\
                28-01-2009 ($t+1$) & 10.97578     \\
                18-03-2009         & 3.156936     \\
                18-03-2009 ($t+1$) & -39.96794*** \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{QE 2}} \\
                \midrule
                10-08-2010         & -6.027634    \\
                10-08-2010 ($t+1$) & -4.766876    \\
                27-08-2010         & 12.00823***  \\
                27-08-2010 ($t+1$) & -8.590786**  \\
                21-09-2010         & -8.681635**  \\
                21-09-2010 ($t+1$) & -3.561874    \\
                15-10-2010         & 5.273132     \\
                15-10-2010 ($t+1$) & -7.208147*** \\
                03-11-2010         & -1.102274    \\
                03-11-2010 ($t+1$) & -12.18613*** \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{FG \& OT}} \\
                \midrule
                09-08-2011         & -18.22610*** \\
                09-08-2011 ($t+1$) & -0.586358    \\
                \addlinespace
            \end{tabular}
            %%%%%%
            \hfill\renewcommand{\cellalign}{tl}
            \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.3}
            \begin{tabular}[t]{l*{2}{S[table-format=2.6, table-space-text-post = {***}]}@{}}
                \toprule
                \multicolumn{1}{l}{Variable} & \multicolumn{1}{l}{US TP K\&W}  \\
                \midrule
                21-09-2011         & -4.037107    \\
                21-09-2011 ($t+1$)   & -11.41062*** \\
                25-01-2012         & -7.875753*   \\
                25-01-2012 ($t+1$) & -4.723397    \\
                20-06-2012         & 1.555765     \\
                20-06-2012 ($t+1$) & -1.551151    \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{QE 3}} \\
                \midrule
                22-08-2012         & -7.536054*   \\
                22-08-2012 ($t+1$) & -2.444037    \\
                31-08-2012         & -5.443553    \\
                31-08-2012 ($t+1$) & 0.972033     \\
                13-09-2012         & -3.847602    \\
                13-09-2012 ($t+1$) & 9.589005**   \\
                12-12-2012         & 3.014749     \\
                12-12-2012 ($t+1$) & -0.183897    \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{Tapering}} \\
                \midrule
                22-05-2013         & 7.675507*    \\
                22-05-2013 ($t+1$) & 0.187358     \\
                19-06-2013         & 14.47107***  \\
                19-06-2013 ($t+1$) & 6.164569     \\
                18-12-2013         & 4.228817     \\
                18-12-2013 ($t+1$) & 5.953846     \\
                \midrule
                $ECB_t$            & 1.313051**   \\
                \midrule
                Observations & {2695} \\
                \makecell{R-squared\\ (adj.)} & 0.073  \\
                \bottomrule
            \end{tabular}
        \end{tabularx}
        \begin{tablenotes}[para,flushleft]\footnotesize{
                \item \textbf{Notes}: Results of Eq. (11) when the term premium component of the 10-year US government bond, constructed by Kim and Wright (2005), is used as dependent variable. Results are shown in basis points. $t+1$ in brackets implies that the effect of this announcement is measured one day after the date that is specified before the bracket. The dates without brackets measure the effects on the exact date that is specified.  *, **, *** denote the 10 percent, 5 percent and 1 percent significance levels, respectively.}
        \end{tablenotes}
    \end{threeparttable}
\end{table}

\end{document}
3

The reason was the incorrect value for table-number-format: 2.6 means 2 digits before the decimal dot, and 6 decimal digits! In your case, the value should have been -2.3. In addition, you specified 2 S columns, whereas there's only 1 for each tabular. I slightly decreased the value of arraystretch the avoid overflowing in the bottom margin.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}%
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}%
\usepackage[textwidth=155mm,top=23.5mm,bottom=23.5mm,
     footskip=40pt,heightrounded, showframe]{geometry}
\usepackage{rotating}
\usepackage[skip=0.33\baselineskip]{caption}
\usepackage[table,xcdraw]{xcolor}
\usepackage[flushleft]{threeparttable}
\usepackage{threeparttablex} %
\usepackage{ragged2e}%
\usepackage{setspace}
\usepackage{siunitx}
\usepackage{booktabs, makecell, float}
\usepackage{tabularx}
\usepackage{pdflscape}
\usepackage{longtable}
\newcolumntype{L}{>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}X}
\newcommand\vn[1]{\mathrm{#1}}
\onehalfspacing

\begin{document}

\begin{table}[H]
    \sisetup{
        output-exponent-marker = \text{e},
        exponent-product={},
        retain-explicit-plus,
        input-open-uncertainty = ,
        input-close-uncertainty = ,
        table-align-text-pre = false,
        table-align-text-post = false,
        round-mode=places,
        round-precision=3,
        table-space-text-pre = (,
        table-space-text-post = ),
        table-number-alignment=center}
    \centering\small\renewcommand{\cellalign}{tl}
    \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.25}
\captionsetup{skip=0pt}
    \begin{threeparttable}
        \caption{Estimation Results Eq. (11) Kim and Wright (2005) measure}
        \begin{tabularx}{\linewidth}{X}
            \begin{tabular}[t]{lS[table-format=-2.3, table-space-text-post = {***}]@{}}
                \toprule
                \multicolumn{1}{l}{Variable} & \multicolumn{1}{l}{US TP K\&W} \\
                \midrule
                Constant & 0.008198 \\
                $\Delta y_{t-1}$ & 0.001881 \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{QE 1}} \\
                \midrule
                25-11-2008 & -16.77163*** \\
                25-11-2008 ($t+1$) & -6.596715 \\
                01-12-2008 & -17.43656*** \\
                01-12-2008 ($t+1$) & -2.915418 \\
                16-12-2008 & -11.89921*** \\
                16-12-2008 ($t+1$) & -11.95582*** \\
                28-01-2009 & 8.527938*** \\
                28-01-2009 ($t+1$) & 10.97578 \\
                18-03-2009 & 3.156936 \\
                18-03-2009 ($t+1$) & -39.96794*** \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{QE 2}} \\
                \midrule
                10-08-2010 & -6.027634 \\
                10-08-2010 ($t+1$) & -4.766876 \\
                27-08-2010 & 12.00823*** \\
                27-08-2010 ($t+1$) & -8.590786** \\
                21-09-2010 & -8.681635** \\
                21-09-2010 ($t+1$) & -3.561874 \\
                15-10-2010 & 5.273132 \\
                15-10-2010 ($t+1$) & -7.208147*** \\
                03-11-2010 & -1.102274 \\
                03-11-2010 ($t+1$) & -12.18613*** \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{FG \& OT}} \\
                \midrule
                09-08-2011 & -18.22610*** \\
                09-08-2011 ($t+1$) & -0.586358 \\
                \addlinespace
            \end{tabular}
            %%%%%%
            \hfill\renewcommand{\cellalign}{tl}
            \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.3}
            \begin{tabular}[t]{lS[table-format=-2.3, table-space-text-post = {***}]@{}}
                \toprule
                \multicolumn{1}{l}{Variable} & \multicolumn{1}{l}{US TP K\&W} \\
                \midrule
                21-09-2011 & -4.037107 \\
                21-09-2011 ($t+1$) & -11.41062*** \\
                25-01-2012 & -7.875753* \\
                25-01-2012 ($t+1$) & -4.723397 \\
                20-06-2012 & 1.555765 \\
                20-06-2012 ($t+1$) & -1.551151 \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{QE 3}} \\
                \midrule
                22-08-2012 & -7.536054* \\
                22-08-2012 ($t+1$) & -2.444037 \\
                31-08-2012 & -5.443553 \\
                31-08-2012 ($t+1$) & 0.972033 \\
                13-09-2012 & -3.847602 \\
                13-09-2012 ($t+1$) & 9.589005** \\
                12-12-2012 & 3.014749 \\
                12-12-2012 ($t+1$) & -0.183897 \\
                \midrule
                \multicolumn{2}{c}{\textbf{Tapering}} \\
                \midrule
                22-05-2013 & 7.675507* \\
                22-05-2013 ($t+1$) & 0.187358 \\
                19-06-2013 & 14.47107*** \\
                19-06-2013 ($t+1$) & 6.164569 \\
                18-12-2013 & 4.228817 \\
                18-12-2013 ($t+1$) & 5.953846 \\
                \midrule
                $ECB_t$ & 1.313051** \\
                \midrule
                Observations & {2695} \\
                \makecell{R-squared\\ (adj.)} & 0.073 \\
                \bottomrule
            \end{tabular}
        \end{tabularx}
        \begin{tablenotes}[para,flushleft]\footnotesize{
                \item \textbf{Notes}: Results of Eq. (11) when the term premium component of the 10-year US government bond, constructed by Kim and Wright (2005), is used as dependent variable. Results are shown in basis points. $t+1$ in brackets implies that the effect of this announcement is measured one day after the date that is specified before the bracket. The dates without brackets measure the effects on the exact date that is specified. *, **, *** denote the 10 percent, 5 percent and 1 percent significance levels, respectively.}
        \end{tablenotes}
    \end{threeparttable}
\end{table}

\end{document} 

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