# There are many blanks between consecutive figures

\documentclass[preprint,12pt,3p]{article}
\begin{document}
\begin{figure}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=150mm,scale=0.5]{A.eps}
\caption{Tree}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=150mm,scale=0.5]{B.eps}
\caption{House.}
\end{center}
\end{figure}
\end{document}


There are many blanks between the consecutive figures (and between figures and figures caption,too.) How can I reduce them?

• – Werner Feb 2 '17 at 0:33
• Does your document contain only figures? – Werner Feb 2 '17 at 0:33
• Off-topic: Why do you use both width and scale to size the graphics? Use one or the other, but not both. – Mico Feb 2 '17 at 4:51

Using the only the option [h] solve the problem in a document like your MWE with only two floats:

\documentclass[a5paper]{article}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\begin{document}
\begin{figure}[h]
\centering
\includegraphics[height=1cm]{example-image-a}
\caption{Tree}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[h]
\centering
\includegraphics[height=1cm]{example-image-a}
\caption{House.}
\end{figure}
\end{document}


But in other context (e.g. a document with text), this is not guaranteed. It takes some time understand floats in LaTeX. I suggest strongly study the article of Frank Mittelbach cited in How to influence the position of float environments like figure and table in LaTeX?.

Probably not related with your case, but beside the floats behavior, take into account that some unexpected small/big spacing in LaTeX can come from stretchable/shrinkable glues. For example, a space between paragraphs (\parskip) could be fixed in some value like 12pt or in a range like 10pt-14pt (12pt plus 2pt minus 2pt).

Once you realize what floats and glues are, they are no longer a problem but some of the nicest LaTeX features.

As Werner was asking in his comment: Does your document contain only figures, as does your Minimal NON-Working Example?

If so, the answer is rather easy. LaTeX distributes the figures evenly distributed on the pages. If you have two figures on one page, there is a lot space around them.

Try to add some paragraphs of text and the look will change dramatically. I have added package lipsum to create two paragraphs of blindtext before and each figure (and after the last).

As Mico pointed out: don't specify the width and a scale factor at the same time. Use either the one or the other.

In order to make your MNWE working, I added also package graphicx. Please, bear in mind, that you don't have to add the file extension, in your case .eps, unless you have the same file name A with different file endings. Graphicx will search and add itself the appropriate file extension. If you are running good old LaTeX (tm) and produce a DVI-file, it will search for the extensions .ps, .eps, .ps.gz and finally .eps.gz.

If, on the other hand, you are running pdfLaTeX (or luaLaTeX or ...) and create a PDF file instead of DVI, than graphicx won't be able to use PostScript Files. It will search for .jpg, .png and .pdf.

It is a wise decision, to leave the extension aside, as you than can freely choose to run LaTeX and produce DVI files, or to use pdfLaTeX (if you happen to have all the image files as .ps or .jpg.)

I changed the center-environment to the \center-command, as also noted by Werner.

If you use a floating object like figure, LaTeX will move those elements around. You can not be sure, that it will stay at that place, where you inserted them in your input file. Therefore, you have to give the figures a \caption (as you did), and reference in your text to the caption numbers. I added a \label to both figures and used them with a \ref and \pageref-command.

I removed the unknown options preprint and 3p from your documentclass. I

\documentclass[12pt]{article}

%% NEW: blindtext
\usepackage{graphicx} % include graphic files
\usepackage{lipsum}   % create blind text

\begin{document}
\lipsum[1-2]
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[width=3cm]{example-image-a}
\caption{Tree}
\label{fig:tree}
\end{figure}
\lipsum[3-4]
\begin{figure}
\centering
\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{example-image-b}
\caption{House.}
\label{fig:house}
\end{figure}

A tree (see figure~\ref{fig:tree} on page~\pageref{fig:tree}) can be planted around a house (see
figure~\ref{fig:house} on page~\pageref{fig:house}).

\lipsum[5-6]
\end{document}