14

In the Chicago Manual of Style citation guidelines I find that one is to quote journal articles and italicize journals, books, and theses. But when I run the code below the output shows the journal article title as un-quoted. What's going on?

output

% test.tex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{natbib}
\begin{document}
  \nocite{*} 
  \bibliographystyle{chicago}
  \bibliography{test}
\end{document}

and

% test.bib
@phdthesis{Doe11,
  title={The Title},
  author={Doe, J.},
  year={2011},
  school={University of Mars}
},

@article{JohSil05,
  title={EbayesThresh: R programs for Empirical Bayes Thresholding},
  author={Johnstone, I.M. and Silverman, B.W.},
  journal={Journal of Statistical Software},
  volume={12},
  number={8},
  pages={1--38},
  year={2005}
},

@book{Joh11,
    title = {Gaussian estimation: Sequence and multiresolution models},
    author = {Johnstone, Ian M.},
    year = {2011},
},

Example from the manual:

Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic,” Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.

7
  • Perhaps you meant "un-quoted" instead of "un-italicized" here: "the output shows the journal article as un-italicized."? Nov 18, 2011 at 0:24
  • Good catch. I see it's fixed. Thanks Gonzalo.
    – lowndrul
    Nov 18, 2011 at 2:16
  • Are you sure that the quotes are required? The latest version of biblatex-chicago doesn't use quotation marks, and as far as I know it's quite up to date and follows the CMS quite closely.
    – Alan Munn
    Nov 18, 2011 at 3:11
  • @AlanMunn: I'm not certain quotes are required. That's just what I found in every online Chicago Manual of Style guide (up to 4 and counting). It could be that those guides are the ones that aren't up to date. I don't know. Hopefully someone knows.
    – lowndrul
    Nov 18, 2011 at 15:42
  • 1
    @brianj --- You are right, judging from your link, but that is different from what CMS (15th ed.) says: § 16.97 [regarding reference lists]: Titles: italics and quotation marks. Titles of books and journals are usually italicized just as they would be in text or in a bibliography. Articles or chapters, however, are not enclosed in quotation marks. (Where quotation marks have been used consistently, however, they need not be deleted, except to conform to the needs of a particular journal or series.) Note also that it is common to use 'sentence case' instead of 'title case' in these lists.
    – jon
    Nov 24, 2011 at 20:04

2 Answers 2

6

You can use the biblatex-chicago package with some extra modifications to implement this fairly easily. The biblatex-chicago package recommends using biber for sorting instead of bibtex.

As some of the comments have noted, in the natural and behavioural sciences, I think quotation marks are rarely used.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\begin{filecontents}{\jobname.bib}
@phdthesis{Doe11,
  title={The Title},
  author={Doe, J.},
  year={2011},
  school={University of Mars}
},

@article{JohSil05,
  title={EbayesThresh: R programs for Empirical Bayes Thresholding},
  author={Johnstone, I.M. and Silverman, B.W.},
  journal={Journal of Statistical Software},
  volume={12},
  number={8},
  pages={1--38},
  year={2005}
},

@book{Joh11,
    title = {Gaussian estimation: Sequence and multiresolution models},
    author = {Johnstone, Ian M.},
    year = {2011},
}
\end{filecontents}
\usepackage[authordate]{biblatex-chicago}
\DeclareFieldFormat[article]{title}{\mkbibquote{#1}} % make article titles in quotes
\DeclareFieldFormat[thesis]{title}{\mkbibemph{#1}} % make theses italics
\addbibresource{\jobname.bib}
\begin{document}
\nocite{*}
\printbibliography
\end{document}

output of code

2

The guidance about quotation marks is a recommendation, not a requirement. Chicago (16th, print edition) 15.45 explicitly gives freedom here:

Publications preferring sentence-style capitalization for titles. Especially in the natural sciences, many publications that use a version of the author—date style prefer sentence-style capitalization ... In addition, works that prefer this style may eschew quotation marks for chapter or article titles.

As far as I can tell, these quotation marks are not used in the natural sciences at all; the wording ("many", "may") is one of those signs of Chicago clinging to the past. It's normal in the humanities, though.

Chicago citation style is not supported that well by Bibtex, but in this case it should be easy to change chicago.bst to support these quotation marks if you want that.

3
  • 8
    Unfortunately, the words "easy" and ".bst" rarely coexist in the same sentence. :-) Could you add some code to show the modification?
    – Alan Munn
    Nov 23, 2011 at 0:35
  • I'm not sure about them 'clinging to the past' given that the 15th used sentence-style and the 16th at least permits, arguably encourages, quotation marks and non-sentence-style! (Maybe clinging to somebody else's past?)
    – cfr
    Mar 20, 2014 at 1:16
  • @cfr: I mean they are reluctantly acknowledging a pattern (omission of quote marks) that has been dominant in the natural sciences for >3 decades. Mar 26, 2014 at 11:49

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