I have a large number of preformatted citations that I would like to insert into my bibliography. I also have some citations in the biblatex database format. How would I go about using these preformatted citations and the biblatex citations so that when I call \printbibliography, both types are mixed together in alphabetical order?

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    I think that it is actually easier to just include the preformatted citations in your database. Feb 19, 2017 at 5:01
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    The question is very unclear. Have you read an introduction to LaTeX? Bibliographies with biblatex
    – Johannes_B
    Feb 19, 2017 at 7:20
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    What exactly do you want to achieve? Do you have some citations in thebibiography that you want to insert into your 'normal' biblatex bibliography? You can't currently do that since thebibliography and biblatex are fundamentally incompatible. What is the use case you are thinking about?
    – moewe
    Feb 19, 2017 at 10:47
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    I don't think that is possible. Biblatex/Biber uses the .bib entries to do the sorting. If you just wanted to add them at the beginning or end, that would be different. But to sort them seems to me a rather different problem: the system is designed to work with database entries (e.g. .bib). @moewe ?
    – cfr
    Feb 19, 2017 at 14:37
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    There is text2bib (text2bib.economics.utoronto.ca) that allows you to convert text to a .bib file. It might require some manual tweaking, but should be able to convert your 'preformatted' entries to a .bib file. As I said there is no way you can somehow 'fuse' your preformatted entries and biblatex's \printbibliography into one.
    – moewe
    Feb 20, 2017 at 6:44

1 Answer 1


biblatex and BibTeX are incompatible with 'prefomatted citations'/\bibitem. That is because they need to take over full control over the bibliography and how entries are presented there.

You should try and move your already preformatted citations to a .bib file, this will be much more convenient for you in the long run. You will be able to use the citations together with different styles and sorting can be taken care of by Biber/BibTeX.

It might be tedious to do this 'by hand', so you could try the text2bib tool (http://text2bib.economics.utoronto.ca/). Depending on the format of your input (your preformatted data) the output can be very good. You should check the resulting .bib file thoroughly manually, though.

Another way, and not recommended here, is to 'fake' entries in the bibliography and stuff all the text of one preformatted citation into one field. The notes2bib package can already do this, but if you need more than the package provides, you may have to steal its idea and expand on it.

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