I'm using the new 2017 ACM standard template. In the bibliography I want to refer to a website without the year and want to format it like so

[1] Title of website, URL

However, the template seems to produce (????) unless I specify a year. Using "n.d." (not dated) instead of the year is not what I want.

Maybe there is a particular publication type that allows that? @misc and @online do not seem to help.

I looked at the source code of the corresponding ACM-Reference-Format.bst and the function "format.year" seems to enforce that a year is mandatory, but maybe there is a way around that?

  • 1
    I've stumbled across the same issue. Did you find a resolution? Commented Feb 28, 2017 at 11:25
  • I have the same issue...any solutions? Commented Feb 4, 2021 at 11:27

1 Answer 1


ACM thinks that a year is too important to omit. You may write it as 2012(?) or [2012] for estimated or not stated year, but it must be there.

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