I am required to follow LNCS format, so I follow their instructions:



The issue is that the bibliography appears in a new page and titled Bibliography, with the title centered. According to the LLNCS example file, it should be on the same page, titled References and with the title aligned to the left, like this:

enter image description here

The only difference I see between my file and the LLNCS example file is that in the LLNCS example file the bibliography is embedded into the file, with:


While I use a bibtex file. Is this the reason? In any case, how can I get the same output as in the image?

  • Is the second-to-last page, i.e., the one immediately before page with the formatted bibliography, possibly nearly full? Incidentally, using BibTeX should not be a reason for the issue you're encountering, since the formatted bib entries (located in a file called \jobname.bbl) start off with the instruction \begin{bibliography}{<some number>}. A separate question: Did you run LaTeX twice more after running BibTeX? – Mico Mar 20 '17 at 5:39

Not a real answer but too long for a comment. I got version 2.20 of llncs.cls from here ftp://ftp.springer.de/pub/tex/latex/llncs/latex2e/llncs.cls and tried

blblblb \cite{doody}


The output is as expected:

enter image description here

If you don't get this output, then probably your version of the class is different, if you get it with the small document but not in your real document then your document is doing something your didn't show.


You are using natbib, which creates a new chapter (instead of section) in the case of LNCS. The "Simplified LNCS Template" (https://latextemplates.github.io/LNCS/) added support for it. The patch for getting natbib to work are as follows:

You need to download "splncsnat" from http://phaseportrait.blogspot.de/2011/02/natbib-compatible-bibtex-style-bst-file.html and apply following tweaks:

  square,        % for square brackets
  comma,         % use commas as separators
  numbers,       % for numerical citations;
%  sort,          % orders multiple citations into the sequence in which they appear in the list of references;
  sort&compress, % as sort but in addition multiple numerical citations
                 % are compressed if possible (as 3-6, 15);
% In the bibliography, references have to be formatted as 1., 2., ... not [1], [2], ...

\renewcommand{\bibsection}{\section*{References}} % requried for natbib to have "References" printed and as section*, not chapter*
% Use natbib compatbile splncsnat style.
% It does provide all features of splncs03, but is developed in a clean way.
% Source: http://phaseportrait.blogspot.de/2011/02/natbib-compatible-bibtex-style-bst-file.html

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