I'm currently using biblatex with the verbose-trad1 style.

Now, I saw in the bibliography that the author gets replaced by a dash when it is multiply referenced because he/she has more than one book:

(this is an example from another question).

Now, I was asked to replace the dashes with idem/eadem. Is it possible? The author of this question wrote

With biblatex, the author can be replaced by a dash (or “idem”) in the bibliography

so I think it is possible, but.. How?

EDIT: I already knew that there was a solution for the problem (in fact I already linked the question marked as duplicate in the original text).

Now, since the author of the other question asks for a way to put idem/eadem for partial matches, and he already knew a way to put it for complete matches, I assumed that there was another way to put idem/eadem instead of dash in the bibliography already embedded in some style or requiring something else. I was asking for that style or something else...

  • The answer is there: tex.stackexchange.com/a/29401/124577
    – TeXnician
    Mar 26, 2017 at 11:07
  • 1
    Since you know about the answer that is suggested as a duplicate, I think you want to achieve something different. Can you explain what exactly is different about your question. Is it only the style?
    – moewe
    Mar 26, 2017 at 12:26
  • @moewe I added the reason why I thought that question was not a complete answer to mine. Summing up: the poster asked for a variation of what I wanted (idem/eadem not necessarily for partial matches), and since what I want was already knew by him maybe the answer is not the best in my case, so I was asking for another way (the poster's one or another) to do this, maybe just changing the style or modifying something else)
    – frarugi87
    Mar 26, 2017 at 18:28
  • For future reference please keep in mind that it is better to provide an MWE in your question directly instead of linking to one, especially if - like in this case - your question is about verbose-trad1, but the code you link to uses the philosophy-verbose style. Such tiny differences matter.
    – moewe
    Mar 27, 2017 at 7:30

1 Answer 1


With the standard styles that offer dashes as well as most well-written custom styles that do (certainly biblatex-philsophy) it is enough to do


Some styles don't define \mkibid, so we might need


if the above alone throws errors (many styles that support the dashed option already define this command).

In order to get the gender of 'idem'/'eadem'/'eaedem'/'eidem' right, you need to fill the gender field in your .bib file

  author    = {Thomas Kuhn},
  gender    = {sm},
  title     = {La struttura delle rivoluzioni scientifiche},
  publisher = {Einaudi},
  location  = {Torino},
  year      = {1978},

Have a look at the biblatex documentation for a list of supported values for the field gender.

  • What about changing the style of idem entry, say to {\sc Id./Ead./...}? \DefineBibliographyStrings{language} idem = {\textsc{Id}\adddot} changes it globally and provides a generic small caps Id. if the gender is not specified. Is there a similar command for the rest of the abbreviations? One that may work in parallel with this one, possibly, and gets overrun when gender is unspecified?
    – Mattia
    May 28, 2021 at 9:39
  • 1
    @Mattia The downside of including formatting commands in bibstrings is that it can confuse the capitalisation feature. For that reason I usually try to avoid using formatting commands in translations. For other genders the strings are called idemsm, idemsf, idemsn, idempm, idempf, idempn, idempp (cf. also § Citations & the bit about the gender field in the biblatex manual)
    – moewe
    May 28, 2021 at 11:15

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