When I run
pdflatex on your example, I get
! LaTeX Error: Bad math environment delimiter.
See the LaTeX manual or LaTeX Companion for explanation.
Type H <return> for immediate help.
followed by several other errors. This means something is wrong in
\[ and that TeX tries its best to get out from the situation, but the final result will most probably be different from the expected.
\[...\] is just a shorthand for
(because you're using
amsmath) and at that point you have already opened an
equation environment, where
equation* doesn't make sense, does it?
aligned does nothing at all: it's needed if you have a subordinate alignment to be typeset in
equation* (or other alignment environments).
v_i, & r \leq CR \\
x_i, & r > CR