# Plotting overfitting diagram

I am trying to find a way of illustrating supervised learning overfitting in LaTeX, like this: I have searched for an example on http://www.texample.net/tikz/examples/ but could not find anything suitable for my purpose. I know questions should provide a minimal working example, but I really don't know in what end to start.

Is it even feasible, or effective, to plot out all the Points like this? I guess I would need to specify coordinates for each Point I want to show. I do not expect anyone to do this for me, but please help me get in the right direction.

• Plotting the dots will be really easy with e.g. pgfplots (see tex.stackexchange.com/questions/61316/draw-a-plot-with-point/… for an example), and the black line is easy if it can described by a function, or a parametric representation. The squiggly line will be the tricky part I suppose. – Torbjørn T. Apr 10 '17 at 16:40
• If you have enough time you could \draw the green line with TikZ and controls (see manual). – TeXnician Apr 10 '17 at 18:25

I can get quite close with Metapost, but my inside routine gets confused by such a wiggly line, so some of the red dots come out blue. If I can improve it I will post a better version. \RequirePackage{luatex85}
\documentclass[border=5mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{luamplib}
\begin{document}
\mplibtextextlabel{enable}
\begin{mplibcode}
% is point "p" inside cyclic path "ring" ?
vardef inside(expr p, ring) =
save t, count, test_line;
count := 0;
path test_line;
test_line = p -- (infinity, ypart p);
for i = 1 upto length ring:
t := xpart (subpath(i-1,i) of ring intersectiontimes test_line);
if ((0 <= t) and (t<1)): count := count + 1; fi
endfor
odd(count)
enddef;

beginfig(1);

path curve, wiggles;

curve = origin { dir -120 } .. (0,-3.8cm) .. (4cm,-4cm) { dir 20 };

numeric a, t, r, n;
a = arclength curve;
r = 1/8;
n = 60;

wiggles = point 0 of curve shifted (direction 0 of curve rotated 90 scaled (r*normaldeviate))
for i=1 upto n:
hide(t := arctime i/n*a of curve)
.. point t of curve
shifted (direction t of curve rotated 90 scaled (r*normaldeviate))
endfor;

draw curve;
path wiggle_c;
wiggle_c = wiggles -- (4cm,0) -- cycle;

numeric N;
N = 3n;
for i=1 upto N:
t := arctime i/N*a of curve;
z[i] = point t of curve shifted (direction t of curve rotated 90 scaled (3r*normaldeviate));
drawdot z[i] withpen pencircle scaled 3 withcolor 3/4 if inside(z[i],wiggle_c): blue else: red fi;
endfor

draw wiggles withpen pencircle scaled 1 withcolor 2/3 green;

endfig;
\end{mplibcode}
\end{document}


Compile with lualatex.