My .bib file contains the following entry:

  author = "Ove Grandstrand",
  title       = "Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights",
  editor      = "Jan Fagerberg and David C. Mowery and Richard R. Nelson",
  booktitle   = "The Oxford Handbook of Innovation",
  publisher   = "Oxford University Press",
  address     = "Oxford",
  year        = 2004,
  pages       = "266-290",
  chapter     = 10,

When I compile with latex and bibtex and the natbib package using the humannat style, I get the following rendering:

Grandstrand, O. 2004. Innovation and intellectual property rights. In The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, and R. R. Nelson, eds., chapter 10, Pp. 266–290. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Of course, "Pp." is wrong: the first p shouldn't be capitalized. What's going wrong here?


Here's the latex file I'm using:




Here are some natbib examples. You can cite examples using the citation key \citep{bar} in your .bib file. There are commands for in-text citations, like \citet{bar}. And you can pass an option to specify additional details, such as a page or chapter number, as an option \citep[p. 130]{bar}. For another example, see \cite{test}.


  • Welcome to TeX.SX! Please help us help you and add a minimal working example (MWE)/minimal working example with bibliography (MWEB) that illustrates your problem. Reproducing the problem and finding out what the issue is will be much easier when we see compilable code, starting with \documentclass{...} and ending with \end{document}.
    – Dai Bowen
    Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 14:50
  • @DaiBowen: I've added the latex code. Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 14:54
  • Are you open to using biblatex instead? Offtopic: mathtools loads amsmath, so the former is sufficient. Also, hyperref should be loaded last, and you're loading geometry twice.
    – Troy
    Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 14:57
  • @Troy: I'm pulling a recycled headed from old files I've used, so I didn't scrutinize for redundancies. I'd prefer to solve this problem rather than switch to biblatex. Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 14:59

1 Answer 1


That's the way that humannat.bst was defined. See sample humannat references here, and note that it uses Pp. by default. You need to modify the style file manually if you want to change it to pp. If you're bent on using Bibtex:

  1. Download the humannat.bst file from CTAN here.
  2. Open it up with your editor, search for Pp. You should see a line that says { "Pp.~" pages n.dashify tie.or.space.connect }.
  3. Change the "Pp.~" to "pp.", as well as the "P.~" in the line below it to "p.". (i.e. Remove the ~ and change the capitalization of the P's.)
  4. Save the .bst file as a copy under a new name (say, humannatpp.bst).
  5. Place the .bst file in the same directory as your main .tex file.
  6. Compile with Bibtex etc. and you're done.


  • 7
    For good form -- and, more importantly, for adherence to software licensing stipulations! -- you should instruct the OP make a copy of humannat.bst, to give the copy a new name (say, humannatpp.bst), and to only edit the copy -- not the file humannat.bst itself. Incidentally, I think the ~ ("tie") after "Pp." (or "pp.") is an error: it ought to be "pp." (without the ~). And, while you're at it recommending changing "Pp." to "pp.", you might as well recommend changing "P." to "p." in the next line of the bst file.
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 15:19
  • 1
    @Mico made the edits, thanks. :) I don't get why the ~ is an error. Does that function as a non-line breaker?
    – Troy
    Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 15:28
  • Thanks. I thought this couldn't possibly have been by design, so I didn't even check the documentation. Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 15:43
  • 1
    Do check out the contents of the function tie.or.space.connect: It inserts a space token as well. Having two consecutive space tokens, which creates an interword space that's twice as wide as all others, looks rather ugly.
    – Mico
    Commented Apr 22, 2017 at 15:46

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