2

So I just pick Latex to write my thesis, I am very new to this I spent half a day googling the issue with no solution, so please forgive my question. Anyway I learned that if I want to make some of my text bold or italic I've to use this command \textit{my text...etc } but when I am trying nothing happens, the text looks exactly the same, I am just wondering if I should import something in the preamble.

In fact none of the text.. is working, I working with sharedlatex.

It seems that even biblatex is broken... the references don't show the way it should show.

Update

Here is the code sample.

NB: I removed the link to shared latex since it doesn't work with the rules

\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage[a4paper]{geometry}


\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[T1,T2A]{fontenc}

\usepackage{times}

\usepackage{setspace}

\onehalfspace

\usepackage[estonian, english]{babel} %the thesis is in English

\addto\captionsestonian{%
  \renewcommand{\refname}{Viidatud kirjandus}%
  \renewcommand{\appendixname}{Lisad}%
}



\usepackage[backend=biber, style=numeric]{biblatex}
\usepackage{csquotes}

\addbibresource{references.bib}

\usepackage[parfill]{parskip}


\usepackage{float}


\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsthm}
\usepackage{amssymb}


\usepackage[mathscr]{eucal}


\usepackage[labelsep=period]{caption}

% Packages for building tables and tabulars
\usepackage{array}
\usepackage{tabu}   % Wide lines in tables
\usepackage{xspace} % Non-eatable spaces in macros

% Including graphical images and setting the figure directory
\usepackage{graphicx}
\graphicspath{{img/}}

% Packages for getting clickable links in PDF file
%\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref} %hide red (blue,green) boxes around links
\usepackage[all]{hypcap}


% Packages for defining colourful text together with some colours
\usepackage{color}
\usepackage{xcolor}


\definecolor{mauve}{rgb}{0.58,0,0.82}

\let\chapter\section
\usepackage[ruled, vlined, linesnumbered]{algorithm2e}

\SetKw{True}{true}
\SetKw{False}{false}
\SetKwData{typeInt}{Int}
\SetKwData{typeRat}{Rat}
\SetKwData{Defined}{Defined}
\SetKwFunction{parseStatement}{parseStatement}


% Nice todo notes
\usepackage{todonotes}

% comments and verbatim text (code)
\usepackage{verbatim}

% add table inline 
\usepackage{wrapfig}


% Proper way to create coloured code listings
\usepackage{listings}


\usepackage{proof}
\usepackage{semantic}
\setlength{\inferLineSkip}{4pt}
\def\predicatebegin #1\predicateend{$\Gamma \vdash #1$}

\newcommand{\proveit}{ProveIt\xspace}

% Macros that make sure that the math mode is set
\newcommand{\typeF}[1] {\ensuremath{\mathsf{type_{#1}}}\xspace}
\newcommand{\opDiv}{\ensuremath{\backslash \mathsf{div}}\xspace}

% Nice Todo box
\newcommand{\TODO}{\todo[inline]}

% A way to define theorems and lemmata
\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}

%Add images side by side 
\usepackage{subcaption}

%Add other fonts I guess?
\usepackage{mathptmx}



%%% BEGIN DOCUMENT
\begin{document}

%===BEGIN TITLE PAGE
\thispagestyle{empty}
\begin{center}

\iflanguage{english}{%
\large

}%\iflanguage

\iflanguage{english}{%
\Large 
}{%
\Large 
}%\iflanguage

\end{center}

\vspace{2mm}

\begin{flushright}
 {
 \setlength{\extrarowheight}{5pt}
 \begin{tabular}{r l}

 \end{tabular}
 }
\end{flushright}

%===COMPULSORY INFO PAGE


%=== Info in English
\newcommand\EngInfo{{%
\selectlanguage{english}
\noindent\textbf{\large}

\vspace*{3ex}

\noindent\textbf{Abstract:}

\noindent
 \textsc{Whitespace}
  \textsc{Whitespace} language.
\vspace*{1ex}

\noindent\textbf{Keywords:}\\
\TODO{List of keywords}
%Layout, formatting, template

\vspace*{1ex}


\vspace*{1ex}
}}%\newcommand\EngInfo


%=== Info in Estonian
\newcommand\EstInfo{{%
\selectlanguage{estonian}
\noindent\textbf{\large Tüübituletus neljandat järku loogikavalemitele}
\vspace*{1ex}

\noindent\textbf{Lühikokkuvõte:}

%\noindent ...

\vspace*{1ex}

\noindent\textbf{Võtmesõnad:}\\
\TODO{List of keywords}
%Layout, formatting, template

\vspace*{1ex}

\noindent\textbf{CERCS:}\TODO{CERCS kood ja nimetus:~\url{https://www.etis.ee/Portal/Classifiers/Details/d3717f7b-bec8-4cd9-8ea4-c89cd56ca46e}}

\vspace*{1ex}
}}%\newcommand\EstInfo


%=== Determine the order of languages on Info page
\iflanguage{english}{\EngInfo}{\EstInfo}
%\iflanguage{estonian}{\EngInfo}{\EstInfo}


\newpage
\tableofcontents{Table of Contents}


% Remember to remove this from the final thesis version
\newpage
% \listoftodos[Unsolved issues]
% END OF TODO PAGE


\newpage
\section{Introduction}



Bitcoin \cite{bitcoin} is probably the most well-known example of a digital technology implementing the idea of a ledger or a blockchain. Bitcoin has not only shown that the use of cryptology, replication and consensus make it possible to implement a digital ledger, but also that this technology can be a platform for performing safe exchange of cryptocurrencies. Along the same lines, in 2015 an open source project called Ethereum \cite{eth} entered the arena of blockchain technologies by providing not only a simile of Bitcoin, but a more flexible platform by the introduction of the so-called smart contracts, which have opened new opportunities for development on top of blockchain.


It is in this context that my Masters’ thesis work takes place. More specifically, my work aims at providing support to Timer Events as defined in the BPMN standard. Timer events are an interesting construct in BPMN because they provide ways to specify temporal constraints such as deadlines and/or \textbf{milestones} in the underlying business process. However, the notion of time in a technology such as Ethereum does not have a clear meaning: there is not \textit{global} clock, and the time for a transaction completion is not fixed (the same transaction can take a few seconds or several minutes). \textsc{Nevertheless}, we are aware of one existing solution that provides a sort of timer for Ethereum and, in discussion forums, it is also \texttt{claimed} that a timer service for Ethereum can implemented via an external service. However, it is unclear if such solutions can be applied into, and what would the implications of using them in a BPMN execution engine. Those are in fact the main goals of my research.

\newpage
% Use Biblatex if you have problems with Estonian keywords
\printbibliography %biblatex
\end{document}

references.bib

@online{omgwebsite,
    author    = "OMG",
    title     = "BPMN 2.0 by Example",
    year      = {2010},
    url       = "http://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/20100601/10-06-02.pdf",
    keywords  = "bpm_by_example"
}

@online{bpmn20,
    author    = "OMG",
    title     = "Business Process Model and Notation(BPMN)",
    year      = {2011},
    url       = "http://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/2.0/PDF/",
    keywords  = "bpm_by_example"
}


@online{eth,
    author    = "Vitalik Buterin",
    title     = "Ethereum White Paper",
    year      = {2013},
    url       = "https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper",
    keywords  = "ethereum"
}
15
  • 2
    Please, provide small complete small (minimal) document which will in test show your claims. help us to help you! Welcome to TeX.SE! – Zarko May 17 '17 at 21:43
  • @Zarko I have reduced everything to one page, the introduction page and I've added some texttt textit textbf just to show how it doesn't wotk. – Second Son May 17 '17 at 21:50
  • 1
    Fine! Now you need to put your code into your question, that we can copy it to our computer and test it! – Zarko May 17 '17 at 21:52
  • Welcome! Please post your code here rather than via an external link. More people will read your code and be likely to help you, and your question should continue to make sense for later users, too. – cfr May 17 '17 at 22:06
  • @Zarko I have done as requested, note that you can still donwload the zip file from sharelatex if you wish – Second Son May 17 '17 at 22:06
5

The problem with the fonts is caused by making T2A default rather than T1 when loading fontenc. This is easily fixed: just reverse the order if you need T2A.

More generally, the document is not well-designed. For a thesis, you want report or book. Then you have \chapter and you don't constantly need \newpage and \maketitle could even do something sensible.

However, you might want titlepage as you need a custom title page. That's fine, but much easier than setting the style etc. by hand.

\hyperref is loaded too late. Apart from hypcap, it should be last.

times is deprecated, tabu is to be avoided and algorithm2e is causing an error every time you load it. It doesn't stop compilation, but it messes up the grouping.

Consider using booktabs for tables.

Only load packages you need.

I've added some more comments in the code itself, which is still very far from being in a good state, but not in as poor a state as it was when I started :(.

Substitute american for british if you want US, rather than UK, English. english is ambiguous. (But if your university put english, they probably want american, although it is not 100% certain.)

\begin{filecontents}{\jobname.bib}
@online{omgwebsite,
    author    = "OMG",
    title     = "BPMN 2.0 by Example",
    year      = {2010},
    url       = "http://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/20100601/10-06-02.pdf",
    keywords  = "bpm by example"
}

@online{bpmn20,
    author    = "OMG",
    title     = "Business Process Model and Notation(BPMN)",
    year      = {2011},
    url       = "http://www.omg.org/spec/BPMN/2.0/PDF/",
    keywords  = "bpm by example"
}


@online{eth,
    author    = "Vitalik Buterin",
    title     = "Ethereum White Paper",
    year      = {2013},
    url       = "https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper",
    keywords  = "ethereum"
}
\end{filecontents}

\documentclass[12pt,a4paper,estonian,british]{report}% or american, if you want US English
\usepackage{geometry}
\usepackage{setspace}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
% default encoding *last*
\usepackage[T2A,T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{babel} %the thesis is in English

\usepackage[backend=biber,style=numeric]{biblatex}
\usepackage{csquotes}
\addbibresource{\jobname.bib}

\usepackage[parfill]{parskip}

% times is deprecated - pick a modern times clone instead
\usepackage{tgtermes}
\usepackage{amsmath,amsthm,amssymb}
% are you sure about this?
\usepackage[mathscr]{eucal}
%Add other fonts I guess?
% if you don't know what it is for, don't load it!
% this will change the fonts used for maths, which may or may not overwrite the effects of loading eucal
\usepackage{mathptmx}

% do you need this?
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage[labelsep=period]{caption}
%Add images side by side - do you need this?
\usepackage{subcaption}
% consider using booktabs
% Packages for building tables and tabulars
\usepackage{array}
% avoid tabu !!
% \usepackage{tabu}   % Wide lines in tables
% add table inline
% are you using wrapfig?
\usepackage{wrapfig}

% be wary of using this, especially of overusing it - you need to ensure you don't get spaces where you don't want them and don't get the *wrong* spaces where you want the *right* ones.
\usepackage{xspace} % Non-eatable spaces in macros

% Including graphical images and setting the figure directory
\usepackage{graphicx}
\graphicspath{{img/}}

% Packages for defining colourful text together with some colours
% color is pointless if loading xcolor
\usepackage{xcolor}

% % Nice todo notes
\usepackage{todonotes}
% loading algorithm2e causes things to go wrong, even if you don't use it, due to a bug in the Packages
% so think carefully about how much you need this!
% here's a fix from David Carlisle: http://chat.stackexchange.com/transcript/message/37476446#37476446
\usepackage{ifthen}
\let\zz\setboolean
\def\setboolean{\ifnum\currentgrouplevel=1 \egroup\let\setboolean\zz\fi\zz}
\usepackage[ruled,vlined,linesnumbered]{algorithm2e}
% % comments and verbatim text (code)
\usepackage{verbatim}
% % % Proper way to create coloured code listings
\usepackage{listings}
\usepackage{proof}
\usepackage{semantic}

% Packages for getting clickable links in PDF file
% hyperref must be loaded LATE - last with certain exceptions e.g. hypcap
\usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref} %hide red (blue,green) boxes around links
\usepackage[all]{hypcap}

% note the -ing if this is for the whole document
\onehalfspacing
\addto\captionsestonian{%
  \renewcommand{\refname}{Viidatud kirjandus}%
  \renewcommand{\appendixname}{Lisad}%
}
\definecolor{mauve}{rgb}{0.58,0,0.82}
%
% % are you sure about this? maybe you should be using book or report rather than article?
% % \let\chapter\section
%
\SetKw{True}{true}
\SetKw{False}{false}
\SetKwData{typeInt}{Int}
\SetKwData{typeRat}{Rat}
\SetKwData{Defined}{Defined}
\SetKwFunction{parseStatement}{parseStatement}
%
\setlength{\inferLineSkip}{4pt}
% % sizing and spacing are going to get screwed up unless you are very careful with this
% % don't use \def unless you know why you need it and are prepared to accept the consequences
% % this does not look at all right ...
\def\predicatebegin #1\predicateend{$\Gamma \vdash #1$}
%
\newcommand{\proveit}{ProveIt\xspace}
%
% % Macros that make sure that the math mode is set
% % shouldn't these be defined as maths elements with maths spacing?
% % I don't know what these are for, but this looks wrong ....
\newcommand{\typeF}[1] {\ensuremath{\mathsf{type_{#1}}}\xspace}
\newcommand{\opDiv}{\ensuremath{\backslash \mathsf{div}}\xspace}
%
% % Nice Todo box
\newcommand{\TODO}{\todo[inline]}
%
% % A way to define theorems and lemmata
\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}

% you're using \selectlanguage, so use this patch
\makeatletter
% fix for bug in babel o ateb joseph wright: http://tex.stackexchange.com/a/361849/
\def\bbl@ensure#1#2#3{%
  \def\bbl@tempb##1{% elt for \bbl@ensured list
    \ifx##1\@empty\else
      \in@{##1}{#2}%
      \ifin@\else
        \toks@\expandafter{##1}%
        \edef\bbl@tempa{%
          \noexpand\DeclareRobustCommand
          \bbl@csarg\noexpand{ensure@\languagename}[1]{%
            \noexpand\foreignlanguage{\languagename}%
            {\ifx\relax#3\else
              \noexpand\fontencoding{#3}\noexpand\selectfont
             \fi
             ########1}}}%
        \bbl@tempa
        \edef##1{%
           \bbl@csarg\noexpand{ensure@\languagename}%
           {\the\toks@}}% The unprotected line end was here!
      \fi
      \expandafter\bbl@tempb
    \fi}%
  \expandafter\bbl@tempb\bbl@ensured\@empty
  \def\bbl@tempa##1{% elt for include list
    \ifx##1\@empty\else
      \bbl@csarg\in@{ensure@\languagename\expandafter}\expandafter{##1}%
      \ifin@\else
        \bbl@tempb##1\@empty
      \fi
      \expandafter\bbl@tempa
    \fi}%
}
\makeatother

%%% BEGIN DOCUMENT
\begin{document}
\begin{titlepage}
  \begin{center}

    \iflanguage{british}{%
      \large

    }{}%\iflanguage

    \iflanguage{british}{%
      \Large
    }{%
      \Large
    }%\iflanguage

  \end{center}

  \vspace{2mm}

  \begin{flushright}
    \setlength{\extrarowheight}{5pt}
    \begin{tabular}{r l}

    \end{tabular}
  \end{flushright}
\end{titlepage}


%=== Info in English
\newcommand\EngInfo{{%
    \selectlanguage{british}%
%     \noindent\textbf{\large}% what is this meant to do?

    \vspace*{3ex}

    \noindent\textbf{Abstract:}% why not use the abstract environment?


    \noindent
    \textsc{Whitespace}
    \textsc{Whitespace} language.
    \vspace*{1ex}

    \noindent\textbf{Keywords:}\par\noindent%\\ don't use \\ to end paragraphs or enter line breaks outside special contexts (e.g. tabular, array, center)
    \TODO{List of keywords}
    %Layout, formatting, template

    \vspace*{1ex}


    \vspace*{1ex}
}}%\newcommand\EngInfo


%=== Info in Estonian
\newcommand\EstInfo{{%
    \selectlanguage{estonian}%
    \noindent\textbf{\large Tüübituletus neljandat järku loogikavalemitele}% the line spacing is going to be wrong here
    \vspace*{1ex}

    \noindent\textbf{Lühikokkuvõte:}

    %\noindent ...

    \vspace*{1ex}

    \noindent\textbf{Võtmesõnad:}\par\noindent
    \TODO{List of keywords}
    %Layout, formatting, template

    \vspace*{1ex}

    \noindent\textbf{CERCS:}\TODO{CERCS kood ja nimetus:~\url{https://www.etis.ee/Portal/Classifiers/Details/d3717f7b-bec8-4cd9-8ea4-c89cd56ca46e}}

    \vspace*{1ex}
}}%\newcommand\EstInfo

%=== Determine the order of languages on Info page
\iflanguage{british}{\EngInfo}{\EstInfo}
%\iflanguage{estonian}{\EngInfo}{\EstInfo}

\tableofcontents

Remember to remove this from the final thesis version
\listoftodos[Unsolved issues]
% END OF TODO PAGE

\chapter{Introduction}

Bitcoin \cite{bitcoin} is probably the most well-known example of a digital technology implementing the idea of a ledger or a blockchain. Bitcoin has not only shown that the use of cryptology, replication and consensus make it possible to implement a digital ledger, but also that this technology can be a platform for performing safe exchange of cryptocurrencies. Along the same lines, in 2015 an open source project called Ethereum \cite{eth} entered the arena of blockchain technologies by providing not only a simile of Bitcoin, but a more flexible platform by the introduction of the so-called smart contracts, which have opened new opportunities for development on top of blockchain.

It is in this context that my Masters’ thesis work takes place. More specifically, my work aims at providing support to Timer Events as defined in the BPMN standard. Timer events are an interesting construct in BPMN because they provide ways to specify temporal constraints such as deadlines and/or \textbf{milestones} in the underlying business process. However, the notion of time in a technology such as Ethereum does not have a clear meaning: there is not \textit{global} clock, and the time for a transaction completion is not fixed (the same transaction can take a few seconds or several minutes). \textsc{Nevertheless}, we are aware of one existing solution that provides a sort of timer for Ethereum and, in discussion forums, it is also \texttt{claimed} that a timer service for Ethereum can implemented via an external service. However, it is unclear if such solutions can be applied into, and what would the implications of using them in a BPMN execution engine. Those are in fact the main goals of my research.

% Use Biblatex if you have problems with Estonian keywords
\printbibliography %biblatex
\end{document}

NFSS working

working refs

5
  • This looks so clean, so great... I picked the template and I started using it. This is my first time ever using latex. Say can I just copy and paste what you've done here? – Second Son May 18 '17 at 0:38
  • You mean legally? Sure. Everything on the site is at least CC with attribution of some kind. But I didn't do anything non-trivial here, so it wouldn't matter even if it wasn't. I put notes in my code when I borrow it with the url and user name. But I do that even if I wrote the code (OK, not my user name, but the URL) in case I want to find the source later. You certainly don't need to do that here, but I've found it is a useful habit as it is so much easier than searching the site ;). – cfr May 18 '17 at 1:04
  • @SecondSon You won't want the filecontents bit - that's just to wrap your sample .bib entries, which you have in references.bib, so change the \addbibresource line back, obviously. – cfr May 18 '17 at 1:06
  • @SecondSon By the way, bitcoin is in bold because there's no bibkey for it in the sample file, so Biber couldn't find an entry for it. – cfr May 18 '17 at 1:09
  • lol... yeah official on the university website... that for the great help once more. – Second Son May 18 '17 at 5:36

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