# Why does [b] not work for a normal figure? [duplicate]

I am using

\begin{figure}[b]
\centering
\includegraphics{bla.pdf}
\caption{bla}
\end{figure}


I would like this figure to be at the bottom of this page, so I include [b]. For some reason, the figure is pushed to the end of the whole chapter, several pages further down. In addition, it takes along another picture (this one does not have any [b] or [t] or [h] specification, which then also appears at the end of the chapter....

Why is [b] not working?

## marked as duplicate by Schweinebacke, TeXnician, Stefan Pinnow, Martin Schröder, JesseMay 21 '17 at 12:10

• Welcome! It is impossible to say why without access to the code. If you post code for a minimal example, we may be more help. Most likely your figure is too big to fit in the bottom space. If you think there is room, try using !b so that LaTeX ignores the usual constraints. This will allow a larger figure than usual into that space. Otherwise, move the figure earlier on the page. Or add other placement options to the b so that you do not make it impossible for LaTeX to place it. Right now, LaTeX can't place it anywhere and the next float in the queue can't be placed w/o changing the order. – cfr May 21 '17 at 1:23
• The parameters that determine where on a page one or more floats (such as table and figure) may be placed are usually set by the document class that's in use. Please do tell us which LaTeX document class you're using. Please also tell us how tall the figure that's giving you problems is. – Mico May 21 '17 at 1:46
• @lblb Frank's answer there is of course relevant but it's essentially an expanded reference manual, if we just close all questions as a duplicate of a "read the manual" answer and don't answer specific cases, then the site will soon run out of things to do. – David Carlisle May 21 '17 at 10:16
• @ David Carlisle, you are right. Your answer is more helpful in this situation. – lblb May 21 '17 at 10:17
• Thank you! My document class is report and the picture height is 9,05 cm. – user134165 May 21 '17 at 11:14

Whenever you use the option you are restricting the places where the float may be placed. The default is [tbp] so [b] means not at top of page and not on a page just with floats. As such it makes it more likely that the float can not be placed in which case it will be held back trying to find a place to fit it until it is flushed out by \clearpage or the end of the document.

As figures are kept in order, if one float drifts to the end, all following ones will do the same.

The standard classes by default have

\setcounter{bottomnumber}{1}
\renewcommand\bottomfraction{.3}


so if the height of your figure, including caption, is more than 30% of \texheight it is too large for the bottom area and since [b] prevents it going in any other area it can not be placed.

You need to change the settings to allow it in the bottom area, or allow it to go into top or page areas by removing the option.

• Thank you! I didn't know that large pictures cannot be at the bottom. – user134165 May 21 '17 at 15:33