Hello everyone and thank you for answering. I'm new in this.

The last part of my work is the bibliography and laTeX is leaving a HUGE white space before the title "References", like in chapters, when it first writes "Chapter N" and then the title below, but now there's no "chapter N" but a blank space instead.

What I want is to remove that huge white space, if it's possible, since it's stealing a space I would need.

I am using the command


and then elements are "\bibitem". Of course it is in the file itself (at the ending); it is not any file apart.

If needed, the heading is

\documentclass[12pt,a4paper, openany, final ]{book}

Could anyone help me? Thank you so much in advance.

PS: I so hope that changing this doesn't re-arrange all the document.

  • Welcome to TeX.SX! Please help us help you and add a minimal working example (MWE) that illustrates your problem. Reproducing the problem and finding out what the issue is will be much easier when we see compilable code, starting with \documentclass{...} and ending with \end{document}.
    – ebosi
    Jun 5, 2017 at 20:31
  • Anyway, thank you for posting some code! At the same time, much of your preamble does not seem to be relevant to the question you're asking here. Please limit the example to only the code required for your issue to appear. You can have a look at this guide for how to prune your code for this purpose.
    – ebosi
    Jun 5, 2017 at 20:32

1 Answer 1


The book document class uses the \chapter* command to generate the bibliography heading. Internally this uses the command \@makeschapterhead, which is defined as follows:

  {\parindent \z@ \raggedright
    \Huge \bfseries  #1\par\nobreak                                                                                     
    \vskip 40\p@                                                                                                        

Here, \p@ means pt, so you can see there is a 50pt vertical space before the heading. You can use the etoolbox package to remove the space.



\bibitem def

Note that this will affect all subsequent instances of \chapter*.

Incidentally, I would recommend using bibtex or biber to construct your bibliography. Doing it manually is very inefficient, and usually leads to formatting errors.

  • Yes, that's the point. I don't want the rest of chapters to be affected; only the Bibliography one. I know there must be some better choices like the BibTeX one, but I have to make it this way right now. (Thanks for your answer by the way)
    – FGSUZ
    Jun 5, 2017 at 20:53
  • @FGSUZ --- Only instances of \chapter* that come after the \patchcmd will be affected. Since the bibliography is the last part of your document you won't change anything else if you put the patch immediately before \begin{thebibliography}. Jun 5, 2017 at 21:05
  • It worked! Thank you so much, that's just what I needed, you helped me a lot.
    – FGSUZ
    Jun 6, 2017 at 11:11
  • ... and how to do it for an article?
    – Make42
    Oct 5, 2018 at 16:29

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