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This question already has an answer here:

What is the reason for the following error?

Package minted Error: You must invoke LaTeX with the -shell-escape flag.

marked as duplicate by Schweinebacke, Andrew, moewe, Werner, Henri Menke Jul 23 '17 at 8:13

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The package minted uses an external software »pygments«, written in Python. So pdfLaTeX needs to run »third party software«. This brings security issues: the external software can do anything, as far as your rights on the computer allow that.

Be aware of this when you start pdfLaTeX with -shell-escape. Pygments is used a lot, so if there were an issue, somebody would probably notice it. But if you ever start experimenting with Lua programms of whatever source, maybe think twice.

By the way, the name »shell-escape« refers to the fact that the external software is started via a system call in a shell of the OS.

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