For a certain journal, I have to use Chicago Style with endnotes. I may use "Ibid." if the reference already appeared in the previous endnote.

If the reference did not appear in the previous endnote, but some endnotes before, I have to write "Author (see note x above)".

Currently I use the biblatex-chicago Package


but the output here is only the shortened version of the reference for subsequent references.

How can I change to a style, replacing shortened forms with a reference to the first mentioned reference?

  • 1
    Even though your question is reasonably clear without a code example you can make our lives easier by providing a small MWE that can get us started. That way we all start from the same assumptions.
    – moewe
    Jul 31 '17 at 15:33

biblatex-chicago does not really lend itself to modifications. If you use the code below, you will probably not be fully CMS compatible any more, so proceed at your own risk.

The basic infrastructure is stolen from verbose-inote which already implements such a style.

Since some of biblatex-chicago's macros have to be quite intricate to get things right, the number of lines of code needed is a bit higher than it could be with other styles.



\DefineBibliographyStrings{english}{above = {above}}



      \ifentrytype{periodical}}% Simplify .bib creation
          not test {\iffieldundef{shortjournal}}%
          test {\ifcitation}%
          togl {cms@citejtabb}%
          test {\ifbibliography}%
          togl {cms@bibjtabb}%
      test {\ifciteidem}%
      not test {\ifbibliography}%
      not test {\iffirstonpage}%
      not togl {cms@noidem}%
      not togl {cms@headlessnote}%
       togl {cms@allshort}%
       test {\ifbibliography}%

Lorem\autocite{sigfridsson} ipsum\autocite{worman} dolor\autocite{sigfridsson}
Lorem\autocite{sigfridsson} ipsum\autocite{worman} dolor\autocite{sigfridsson}
Lorem\autocite{knuth:ct:a} ipsum\autocite{knuth:ct:b} dolor\autocite{knuth:ct:a}

footnotes of the first page

  • Almost perfect. How can I include the "above" into "(see note 1)" so that I get "(see note 1 above)"? And is there a way to include the "title", if there are multiple references of one author in a note I am referring to?
    – feder80
    Aug 1 '17 at 7:56
  • @feder80 I have updated the answer to include the 'above'. We could include the title if there are several titles by the same author, it would be more complicated to do that conditional on that being in a particular note. Can you clarify what exactly you want. (Keeping in mind that it would be quite a bit more complicated to check if the author is unique per footnote as compared to the entire document.)
    – moewe
    Aug 1 '17 at 9:09
  • It should look as follows: Note 1: Author X, "Title 1", Journal etc.; Author X, "Title 2" Journal etc.; Author Y, "Title 3" Journal etc. Note 2: Author Y (see note 1 above). Note 3: Author X, "Title 2" (see note 1 above).
    – feder80
    Aug 1 '17 at 10:06
  • @feder80 I can do that easily. But Note 1: Author X, Title 1, Author X, Title 2. Note 2: Author Y, Title 3. Note 3: Author Y, Title 4. Note 4: Author Y (see note 2). I can't do, I could do 'Note 4: Author Y, Title 3 (see note 2)'
    – moewe
    Aug 1 '17 at 10:11
  • ok, that would also be fine. I really wonder, why a Journal chooses such a horrible citation style!
    – feder80
    Aug 1 '17 at 10:14

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