1

I am getting the following error message when I run my code:

! Missing } inserted. } l.116 \end{thebibliography}

I have read previous questions like this on here which say the error is in my bibliography and not main code but I cannot find a missing bracket in my bibliography or anything else which could be causing the issue before line 116.

Here is my bibliography; (I have put < line 116> to show you where this is, please note this is not apart of my actual code)

@ARTICLE{FossKorshunovZachary2013,
  AUTHOR    = {S. Foss and D. Korshunov and S. Zachary},
  TITLE     = {Heavy-tailed and long-tailed distributions},
  BOOKTITLE = {An Introduction to Heavy-Tailed and Subexponential 
Distributions},
  PAGES     = {7--42},
  YEAR      = {2013},
  PUBLISHER = {Springer}}

@misc{ParetoDist2011,
  TITLE        = {The Pareto Distribution},
  YEAR         = {2011},
  HOWPUBLISHED = 
{url{https://statisticalmodeling.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/the-mean-excess-
loss-function}},
   LAST EDITED  = {23 June 2011}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 30 August 2017]"}}

@ARTICLE{Rojas-NandayapaXie2017,
  AUTHOR    = {L. Rojas-Nandayapa and W. Xie},
  TITLE     = {Asympotoic tail behavior of phase-type scale mixture 
 distributions},
  YEAR      = {2017},
  PAGES     = {1--6},
  JOURNAL   = {Annals of Actuarial Science},
  PUBLISHER = {Cambridge University Press}}

@BOOK{BuchholzKriegeFelko2014,
  AUTHOR    = {P. Buchholz, J. Kriege, I. Felko},
  TITLE     = {Phase-Type Distributions},
  PUBLISHER = {Springer},
  YEAR      = {2014},
  PAGES     = {5--10, 125--128}}

@ARTICLE{BladtNandayapapa2017,
  AUTHOR    = {M. Bladt and L. Nandayapapa},
  TITLE     = {Fitting Phase-type Mixtures to Heavy-tailed Data and 
Distriutions},
  YEAR      = {2017},
  JOURNAL   = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.04357},
  PAGES     = {1--11}}

@article{AhmSoohanKimJosephRamaswani2012,
  AUTHOR    = {Ahn, Soohan and H.T. Kim, Joseph and Ramaswami, V},
  TITLE     = {A New Class of Models for Heavy Tailed Distributions in 
Finance and Insurance Risk},
  YEAR      = {2012},
  MONTH     = {07},
  VOLUME    = {51},
  BOOKTITLE = {Insurance: Mathematics and Economics}}

@misc{wikipedia2017,
  AUTHOR       = {Wikipedia®},
  TITLE        = {Heavy-tailed distribution},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy-
tailed_distribution}},
 LAST EDITED  = {10 June 2017}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 10 June 2017]"}}

 @misc{Zheng,
  AURTHOR      = {S. Zheng},
  TITLE        = {Sufficient Statistics and Exponential Family Lecturer},
  YEAR         = {n.d},
  HOWPUBLISHED =
 {url{http://people.missouristate.edu/songfengzheng/Teaching/MTH541/Lecture\%20no
tes/Sufficient.pdf}},
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 31 June 2017]"}}

@misc{Clapham2016,
  AURTHOR      = {M.E. Clapham},
  TITLE        = {Maximum likelihood estimation},
  YEAR         = {2016},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {url{https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2vh98ful3_M}},
  LAST EDITED  = {05 March 2016}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 01 August 2017]"}}

@misc{Andale2015,
  AURTHOR      = {Andale},
  TITLE        = {Pareto Distribution Definition},
  YEAR         = {2015},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {url{http://www.statisticshowto.com/pareto-distribution}},
  LAST EDITED  = {06 May 2015}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 22 July 2017]"}}

@phdthesis{Vatamidou2015,
  AUTHOR = {Vatamidou, Eleni},
  TITLE  = {Error analysis of structured Markov chains},
  YEAR   = {2015},
  SCHOOL = {Technische Universiteit Eindhoven}}  

@article{AsmussenNermanOlsson1996,
  AUTHOR    = {S. Asmussen and O. Nerman and M. Olsson}, 
  TITLE     = {Fitting Phase-Type Distributions via the EM Algorithm},
  YEAR      = {1996},
  ISSN      = {03036898, 14679469},
  URL       = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4616418}, 
  JOURNAL   = {Scandinavian Journal of Statistics}, 
  NUMBER    = {4},
  PAGES     = {419--441},
  PUBLISHER = {Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of 
  Statistics, Wiley},
  VOLUME    = {23}}

 @inproceedings{TaoRojasTaimre2016,
 AUTHOR       = {H. Yao and L. Rojas-Nandayapa, and T. Taimre},
 TITLE        = {Estimating tail probabilities of random sums of infinite 
mixtures of phase-type distributions},
 YEAR         = {2016},
 BOOKTITLE    = {Proceedings of the 2016 Winter Simulation Conference},
 PAGES       = {347--358},
 ORGANISATION = {IEEE Press}}

@article{AsmussenNermanOlsson1996,
  AUTHOR    = {Figueiredo, Mario AT}, 
  TITLE     = {Lecture Notes on the EM Algorithm},
  YEAR      = {2004},
  JOURNAL={URL{http://www.stat.duke.edu/courses/Spring06/sta376/Support/EM/EM.Mixtures.}},
    PUBLISHER = {Citeseer}}

 @article{Breuer2014,
  AUTHOR   = {Breuer, Lothar},
  TITLE    = {Introduction to stochastic processes},
  YEAR     = {2014},
  JOURNAL  = {Lecture Notes, Univ. Kent}}

@phdthesis{Esparza2010,
 <LINE 116>     AUTHOR   = {Esparza, Luz Judith R and Nielsen, Bo Friis and Bladt, 
Mogens},
  TITLE    = {Maximum likelihood estimation of phase-type distributions},
  YEAR     = {2010},
  SCHOOL   = {Technical University of DenmarkDanmarks Tekniske Universitet, 
Department of Applied                    Mathematics and Computer 
ScienceInstitut for Matematik og Computer Science}}

 @article{Brazauskas2016,
  AUTHOR    = {V. Brazauskas and A. Kleefeld},
  TITLE     = {Modeling severity and measuring tail risk of Norwegian fire 
 claims},
  YEAR      = {2016},
  JOURNAL   = {North American Actuarial Journal},
  VOLUME    = {20},
  NUMBER    = {1},
  PAGES     = {1--16},
  PUBLISHER = {Taylor \& Francis}}

@article{Dempster1977,
  AUTHOR    = {Dempster, Arthur P and Laird, Nan M and Rubin, Donald B},
  TITLE     = {Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM 
algorithm},
  YEAR      = {1977},
  JOURNAL   = {Journal of the royal statistical society. Series B 
(methodological)},
  PAGES     = {1--38},
  PUBLISHER = {JSTOR}}

@article{Borman2004,
  AUTHOR    = {Borman, Sean},
  TITLE     = {The expectation maximization algorithm - a short tutorial},
  YEAR      = {2004},
  JOURNAL   = {Submitted for publication},
  PAGES     = {1--9}}


@misc{wikipediaPowerLaw2017,
  AUTHOR       = {Wikipedia®},
  TITLE        = {Power Law},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_law}},
  LAST EDITED  = {12 July 2017}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 12 July 2017]"}}

@book{Embrechts2013,
  AUTHOR    = {Embrechts, Paul and Kluppelberg, Claudia and Mikosch, 
Thomas},
  TITLE     = {Modelling extremal events: for insurance and finance},
  YEAR      = {2013},
  VOLUME    = {33},
  PUBLISHER = {Springer Science \& Business Media}}

@misc{Mean2011,
  TITLE        = {The mean excess loss function},
  YEAR         = {2011},
  HOWPUBLISHED = 
{url{https://statisticalmodeling.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/the-mean-excess-
loss-function/}},
  LAST EDITED  = {25 June 2011}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 30 August 2017]"}}

@article{Genccay2001,
  TITLE        = {EVIM: A software package for extreme value analysis in 
MATLAB},
  AUTHOR       = {Genccay, Ramazan and Selccuk, Faruk and Ulugulyagci, 
Abdurrahman},
  JOURNAL      = {Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics \& Econometrics},
  VOLUMN       = {5},
  NUMBER       = {3},
  YEAR         = {2001}}

@article{Mcneil1997,
       title={Estimating the tails of loss severity distributions using 
extreme 
   value theory},
       author={McNeil, Alexander J},
       journal={ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the IAA},
      volume={27},
      number={1},
      pages={117--137},
       year={1997},
       publisher={Cambridge University Press}}
  • the line number is the line in the generated bibliography (with \end{thebibliography} but the error is there at the end of the group as there is a mismatched { earlier. – David Carlisle Sep 15 '17 at 22:59
  • Are you processing your BibTeX file using a UTF8 encoding? The entry wikipedia2017 has that in it. – Werner Sep 15 '17 at 22:59
1

Well, you have several mistakes in your given bib code. Let us look to bib entry ParetoDist2011. The corrected version is:

@misc{ParetoDist2011,
  TITLE        = {The Pareto Distribution},
  YEAR         = {2011},
  howpublished = {\url{https://statisticalmodeling.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/the-mean-excess-loss-function}},
  LAST_EDITED  = {23 June 2011}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 30 August 2017]"},
}

You missed an \before url{, the blank in LAST EDITED results in an error message (missing =). In other entrys you masked in urls % with \%. After loading package url or hyperref that is not longer needed ...

The following MWE compiles without errors and only one warning (okay, commes from used package filecontents to keep bib file and TeX code together in one MWE):

\RequirePackage{filecontents}
\begin{filecontents*}{\jobname.bib}
@Book{Goossens,
  author    = {Goossens, Michel and Mittelbach, Frank and 
               Samarin, Alexander},
  title     = {The LaTeX Companion},
  edition   = {1},
  publisher = {Addison-Wesley},
  location  = {Reading, Mass.},
  year      = {1994},
}
@Book{adams,
  title     = {The Restaurant at the End of the Universe},
  author    = {Douglas Adams},
  series    = {The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy},
  publisher = {Pan Macmillan},
  year      = {1980},
}
@ARTICLE{FossKorshunovZachary2013,
  AUTHOR    = {S. Foss and D. Korshunov and S. Zachary},
  TITLE     = {Heavy-tailed and long-tailed distributions},
  BOOKTITLE = {An Introduction to Heavy-Tailed and Subexponential Distributions},
  journal   = {MISSING},
  PAGES     = {7--42},
  YEAR      = {2013},
  PUBLISHER = {Springer},
}
@misc{ParetoDist2011,
  TITLE        = {The Pareto Distribution},
  YEAR         = {2011},
  howpublished = {\url{https://statisticalmodeling.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/the-mean-excess-loss-function}},
  LAST_EDITED  = {23 June 2011}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 30 August 2017]"},
}
@ARTICLE{Rojas-NandayapaXie2017,
  AUTHOR    = {L. Rojas-Nandayapa and W. Xie},
  TITLE     = {Asympotoic tail behavior of phase-type scale mixture 
               distributions},
  YEAR      = {2017},
  PAGES     = {1--6},
  JOURNAL   = {Annals of Actuarial Science},
  PUBLISHER = {Cambridge University Press}}

@BOOK{BuchholzKriegeFelko2014,
  AUTHOR    = {P. Buchholz, J. Kriege, I. Felko},
  TITLE     = {Phase-Type Distributions},
  PUBLISHER = {Springer},
  YEAR      = {2014},
  PAGES     = {5--10, 125--128}}

@ARTICLE{BladtNandayapapa2017,
  AUTHOR    = {M. Bladt and L. Nandayapapa},
  TITLE     = {Fitting Phase-type Mixtures to Heavy-tailed Data and 
               Distriutions},
  YEAR      = {2017},
  JOURNAL   = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.04357},
  PAGES     = {1--11}}

@article{AhmSoohanKimJosephRamaswani2012,
  AUTHOR    = {Ahn, Soohan and H.T. Kim, Joseph and Ramaswami, V},
  TITLE     = {A New Class of Models for Heavy Tailed Distributions in 
               Finance and Insurance Risk},
  YEAR      = {2012},
  MONTH     = {07},
  VOLUME    = {51},
  BOOKTITLE = {Insurance: Mathematics and Economics},
  journal   = {MISSING},
}

@misc{wikipedia2017,
  AUTHOR       = {Wikipedia},
  TITLE        = {Heavy-tailed distribution},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heavy-tailed_distribution}},
  LAST_EDITED  = {10 June 2017}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 10 June 2017]"}}

 @misc{Zheng,
  AURTHOR      = {S. Zheng},
  TITLE        = {Sufficient Statistics and Exponential Family Lecturer},
  YEAR         = {n.d},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{http://people.missouristate.edu/songfengzheng/Teaching/MTH541/Lecture%20notes/Sufficient.pdf}},
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 31 June 2017]"}}

@misc{Clapham2016,
  AURTHOR      = {M.E. Clapham},
  TITLE        = {Maximum likelihood estimation},
  YEAR         = {2016},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2vh98ful3_M}},
  LAST_EDITED  = {05 March 2016}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 01 August 2017]"}}

@misc{Andale2015,
  AURTHOR      = {Andale},
  TITLE        = {Pareto Distribution Definition},
  YEAR         = {2015},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{http://www.statisticshowto.com/pareto-distribution}},
  LAST_EDITED  = {06 May 2015}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 22 July 2017]"}}

@phdthesis{Vatamidou2015,
  AUTHOR = {Vatamidou, Eleni},
  TITLE  = {Error analysis of structured Markov chains},
  YEAR   = {2015},
  SCHOOL = {Technische Universiteit Eindhoven}}  

@article{AsmussenNermanOlsson1996,
  AUTHOR    = {S. Asmussen and O. Nerman and M. Olsson}, 
  TITLE     = {Fitting Phase-Type Distributions via the EM Algorithm},
  YEAR      = {1996},
  ISSN      = {03036898, 14679469},
  URL       = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4616418}, 
  JOURNAL   = {Scandinavian Journal of Statistics}, 
  NUMBER    = {4},
  PAGES     = {419--441},
  PUBLISHER = {Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of 
               Statistics, Wiley},
  VOLUME    = {23}}

@article{Figueiredo2004,
  AUTHOR    = {Figueiredo, Mario AT}, 
  TITLE     = {Lecture Notes on the EM Algorithm},
  YEAR      = {2004},
  JOURNAL   = {\url{http://www.stat.duke.edu/courses/Spring06/sta376/Support/EM/EM.Mixtures.}},
  PUBLISHER = {Citeseer}}

@inproceedings{TaoRojasTaimre2016,
 AUTHOR       = {H. Yao and L. Rojas-Nandayapa and T. Taimre},
 TITLE        = {Estimating tail probabilities of random sums of infinite 
                 mixtures of phase-type distributions},
 YEAR         = {2016},
 BOOKTITLE    = {Proceedings of the 2016 Winter Simulation Conference},
 PAGES        = {347--358},
 ORGANISATION = {IEEE Press}}

@article{Breuer2014,
  AUTHOR   = {Breuer, Lothar},
  TITLE    = {Introduction to stochastic processes},
  YEAR     = {2014},
  JOURNAL  = {Lecture Notes, Univ. Kent}}

@phdthesis{Esparza2010,
  AUTHOR   = {Esparza, Luz Judith R and Nielsen, Bo Friis and 
              Bladt, Mogens},
  TITLE    = {Maximum likelihood estimation of phase-type distributions},
  YEAR     = {2010},
  SCHOOL   = {Technical University of DenmarkDanmarks Tekniske Universitet, 
              Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer 
              ScienceInstitut for Matematik og Computer Science},
}
@article{Brazauskas2016,
  AUTHOR    = {V. Brazauskas and A. Kleefeld},
  TITLE     = {Modeling severity and measuring tail risk of Norwegian fire 
               claims},
  YEAR      = {2016},
  JOURNAL   = {North American Actuarial Journal},
  VOLUME    = {20},
  NUMBER    = {1},
  PAGES     = {1--16},
  PUBLISHER = {Taylor \& Francis}}

@article{Dempster1977,
  AUTHOR    = {Dempster, Arthur P and Laird, Nan M and Rubin, Donald B},
  TITLE     = {Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM 
               algorithm},
  YEAR      = {1977},
  JOURNAL   = {Journal of the royal statistical society. Series B 
               (methodological)},
  PAGES     = {1--38},
  PUBLISHER = {JSTOR}}

@article{Borman2004,
  AUTHOR    = {Borman, Sean},
  TITLE     = {The expectation maximization algorithm - a short tutorial},
  YEAR      = {2004},
  JOURNAL   = {Submitted for publication},
  PAGES     = {1--9}}

@misc{wikipediaPowerLaw2017,
  AUTHOR       = {Wikipedia},
  TITLE        = {Power Law},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_law}},
  LAST_EDITED  = {12 July 2017}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 12 July 2017]"}}

@book{Embrechts2013,
  AUTHOR    = {Embrechts, Paul and Kluppelberg, Claudia and 
               Mikosch, Thomas},
  TITLE     = {Modelling extremal events: for insurance and finance},
  YEAR      = {2013},
  VOLUME    = {33},
  PUBLISHER = {Springer Science \& Business Media}}

@misc{Mean2011,
  TITLE        = {The mean excess loss function},
  YEAR         = {2011},
  HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{https://statisticalmodeling.wordpress.com/2011/06/25/the-mean-excess-loss-function/}},
  LAST_EDITED  = {25 June 2011}, 
  NOTE         = {"[Online; accessed 30 August 2017]"}}

@article{Genccay2001,
  TITLE        = {EVIM: A software package for extreme value analysis in 
                  MATLAB},
  AUTHOR       = {Genccay, Ramazan and Selccuk, Faruk and 
                  Ulugulyagci, Abdurrahman},
  JOURNAL      = {Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics \& Econometrics},
  VOLUMe       = {5},
  NUMBER       = {3},
  YEAR         = {2001},
}
@article{Mcneil1997,
  title={Estimating the tails of loss severity distributions using 
         extreme value theory},
  author={McNeil, Alexander J},
  journal={ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the IAA},
  volume={27},
  number={1},
  pages={117--137},
  year={1997},
  publisher={Cambridge University Press}}
\end{filecontents*}


\documentclass[10pt,a4paper]{article}

\usepackage{showframe}  % to visualise the typing area and margins
\usepackage{hyperref}

\begin{document}

This is text with \cite{Goossens} and \cite{adams}.

\nocite{*} % to test all bib entrys
\bibliographystyle{unsrt}
\bibliography{\jobname}

\end{document}

with the first pdf page:

first pdf page

Please change the used \bibliographystyle to that one you use. That could result in other errors ...

1

In think, there are many problems/errors in the bibliography entries:

  1. If you use URLs in the bibliography, you will have problems with the underscore character. I usually replace _ with \_ in the Bibtex entries. The result will show _. For instance,

    HOWPUBLISHED = {url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_law}},
    

    may be changed to

    HOWPUBLISHED = {\url{https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power\_law}},
    
  2. There are some missing data

    • BibTeX to sort, need author or key in ParetoDist2011
    • BibTeX to sort, need author or key in Zheng
    • BibTeX to sort, need author or key in Clapham2016
    • BibTeX to sort, need author or key in Andale2015
    • BibTeX to sort, need author or key in Mean2011
    • BibTeX empty journal in AhmSoohanKimJosephRamaswani2012
    • BibTeX empty journal in FossKorshunovZachary2013
    • BibTeX there's a number but no volume in Genccay2001
  3. And, some other problems

    • line 13: The HOWPUBLISHED ={url{https://...}}, use url{ instead of \url {... }
    • line 16: You have LAST EDITED with an space in it. Even if this is not a valid field, it will not cause an error if the name does not have spaces.
    • line 53: The {Wikipedia®} has an special character
    • line 55: The same error with HOWPUBLISHED
    • line 56: The same error with LAST EDITED
    • line 74: The same error with LAST EDITED
    • line 82: The same error with LAST EDITED
    • line 113: The key AsmussenNermanOlsson1996 is repeated
    • line 168: The same error with LAST EDITED
    • line 185: The same error with LAST EDITED

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