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I am trying to eliminate these spacing. I've been looking and trying different things, but nothing seems to work properly. I am using thebibliography environment.

I am trying to evenly space it all. For ref 1, the website is spaced too far and for ref 2, I want it evenly spaced. Please help

enter image description here

And I deal with the same with plain text. I don't know if there is a general command for both biblo and plain text

enter image description here

  • 1
    You're obviously setting your bibliography manually (using a thebibliography environment), correct? – Werner Oct 18 '17 at 2:45
  • I apologize for not being clear, yes I am – cs student Oct 18 '17 at 2:52
  • \hbox{} is not an option bc I am writing an article that is supposed to have 2 col. – cs student Oct 18 '17 at 3:02
  • 1
    You have to allow more breakpoints in your URLs, and maybe consider raggedright alignment for a 2-col bibliography. – Steven B. Segletes Oct 18 '17 at 3:19
  • A MWE would help in seeing exactly what you are doing, but the url package gives good flexibility in creating breaks and allowing larger spaces around / characters if needed. – David Purton Oct 18 '17 at 5:35
1

Here are some options:

enter image description here

\documentclass[twocolumn]{article}

\usepackage[paper=a5paper,margin=1cm]{geometry}% Just for this example

\usepackage{hyperref}
\def\UrlBreaks{\do\/\do-}

\begin{document}

Default bibliography:

\begin{thebibliography}{X}
  \bibitem{abc0}
  Adventech B+B SmartWorx. {\itshape Smart IoT Technologies for Adaptive
  Traffic Management Using a Wireless Mesh Sensor Network.} 19 November 2014.
  http://advantech-bb.com/smart-iot-technologies-for-adaptive-traffic-management-using-a-wireless-mesh-sensor-networks/.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.

  \bibitem{def0}
  Elsevier. {\itshape Data-driven smart-city-enabled traffic system modeling,
  analysis and optimization.}
  https://www.journals.elsevier.com/transportation-research-part-c-emerging-technologies/call-for-papers.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.
\end{thebibliography}

\newpage

First alternative:

\begin{thebibliography}{X}
  \raggedright
  \bibitem{abc1}
  Adventech B+B SmartWorx. {\itshape Smart IoT Technologies for Adaptive
  Traffic Management Using a Wireless Mesh Sensor Network.} 19 November 2014.
  http://advantech-bb.com/smart-iot-technologies-for-adaptive-traffic-management-using-a-wireless-mesh-sensor-networks/.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.

  \bibitem{def1}
  Elsevier. {\itshape Data-driven smart-city-enabled traffic system modeling,
  analysis and optimization.}
  https://www.journals.elsevier.com/transportation-research-part-c-emerging-technologies/call-for-papers.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.
\end{thebibliography}

\newpage

Second alternative:

\begin{thebibliography}{X}
  \bibitem{abc2}
  Adventech B+B SmartWorx. {\itshape Smart IoT Technologies for Adaptive
  Traffic Management Using a Wireless Mesh Sensor Network.} 19 November 2014.
  \url{http://advantech-bb.com/smart-iot-technologies-for-adaptive-traffic-management-using-a-wireless-mesh-sensor-networks/}.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.

  \bibitem{def2}
  Elsevier. {\itshape Data-driven smart-city-enabled traffic system modeling,
  analysis and optimization.}
  \url{https://www.journals.elsevier.com/transportation-research-part-c-emerging-technologies/call-for-papers}.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.
\end{thebibliography}

\newpage

Third alternative:

\begin{thebibliography}{X}
  \bibitem{abc3}
  Adventech B+B SmartWorx. {\itshape Smart IoT Technologies for Adaptive
  Traffic Management Using a Wireless Mesh Sensor Network.} 19 November 2014.
  \href{http://advantech-bb.com/smart-iot-technologies-for-adaptive-traffic-management-using-a-wireless-mesh-sensor-networks/}{http://advantech-bb.com/}.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.

  \bibitem{def3}
  Elsevier. {\itshape Data-driven smart-city-enabled traffic system modeling,
  analysis and optimization.}
  \href{https://www.journals.elsevier.com/transportation-research-part-c-emerging-technologies/call-for-papers}{http://www.journals.elsevier.com/}.
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.
\end{thebibliography}

\newpage

Fourth alternative:

\begin{thebibliography}{X}
  \bibitem{abc4}
  Adventech B+B SmartWorx. {\itshape Smart IoT Technologies for Adaptive
  Traffic Management Using a Wireless Mesh Sensor Network.} 19 November 2014.

  \href{http://advantech-bb.com/smart-iot-technologies-for-adaptive-traffic-management-using-a-wireless-mesh-sensor-networks/}{http://advantech-bb.com/}

  Accessed: 15 October 2017.

  \bibitem{def4}
  Elsevier. {\itshape Data-driven smart-city-enabled traffic system modeling,
  analysis and optimization.}

  \href{https://www.journals.elsevier.com/transportation-research-part-c-emerging-technologies/call-for-papers}{https://www.journals.elsevier.com/}

  Accessed: 15 October 2017.
\end{thebibliography}

\newpage

Fifth alternative:

\begin{thebibliography}{X}
  \bibitem{abc5}
  Adventech B+B SmartWorx. {\itshape Smart IoT Technologies for Adaptive
  Traffic Management Using a Wireless Mesh Sensor Network.} 19 November 2014.
  \href{http://advantech-bb.com/smart-iot-technologies-for-adaptive-traffic-management-using-a-wireless-mesh-sensor-networks/}{\ttfamily advantech-bb.com}
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.

  \bibitem{def5}
  Elsevier. {\itshape Data-driven smart-city-enabled traffic system modeling,
  analysis and optimization.}
  \href{https://www.journals.elsevier.com/transportation-research-part-c-emerging-technologies/call-for-papers}{\ttfamily www.journals.elsevier.com}
  Accessed: 15 October 2017.
\end{thebibliography}

\end{document}

In the above example,

  1. The original input.

  2. Using a \raggedright alignment within the thebibliography environment that helps with line-breaking. One could even consider using \RaggedRight from ragged2e.

  3. Using url (also provided by hyperref) with addition line-breaking rules (see How to deal with bibliography items containing long URLs?).

  4. Using abbreviated URLs with full-length embedded hyperlinks when viewing online.

  5. Placing the URL on a line of its own, shortened if possible.

  6. Mixing (3) and (4) above, together with a drop of the protocol and path in lieu of keeping only the domain.

    enter image description here

    Online viewers of the content can still click the URL to go to the intended target. Offline viewers should be able to find the content online by starting with the URL domain.

Another option to consider might be a URL shortner. While this may standardise your online references (lengths), there's not much to be gained by the casual paper reader from the online identify if a URL is not legible (that is, my.fancy.long.url provides more value than f.akeurl/1h3ial).

For additional information and a discussion on this topic (using similar techniques suggested above), see URLs: Some Practical Advice.

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