# How to draw the following diagram with tikz?

I want to draw the following diagram Where $BE$ is a tangent at $B$. Here is my MWE

\documentclass[margin=10pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}

\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=4.0, axes/.style={thick,->}]
\draw[axes] (-1.2,0) -- (1.2,0) node[right] {$x$};
\draw[axes] (0,-1.2) -- (0,1.2) node[above] {$y$};

\draw (0,0) circle[radius=1];

\draw[->] (0.2,0) node[above right]{$\theta$} arc[start angle=0, end angle=30, radius=0.2];
\draw (0,0) -- node[below]{$\cos \theta$} ({sqrt(3)/2},0)
-- node[right,fill=white]{\ \ $\theta$} ({sqrt(3)/2},0.5)
-- cycle;
\path (0,0) -- node[above]{$1$} ({sqrt(3)/2},0.5);
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}


Edit: (Thanks to Torbjørn T.) BD an extension of OB, and is AD supposed to be vertical.

• Is BD an extension of OB, and is AD supposed to be vertical? – Torbjørn T. Oct 24 '17 at 10:45
• @TorbjørnT. That's right, "BD an extension of OB, and is AD supposed to be vertical." Sorry for my bad drawing. I will edit that. – Maryà Oct 24 '17 at 10:50

## 4 Answers

A bit crude, but given the angle a, the required point E is at (1,(1-cos(a))/sin(a)) or (1,cosec(a)-cot(a))

\documentclass[tikz,margin=5]{standalone}
\usetikzlibrary{angles,quotes}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[x=4cm, y=4cm, axes/.style={thin, gray, ->},
dot/.style={.. dot={#1:0:;}},
.. dot/.style args={#1:#2:#3;}{insert path={
coordinate (#1)
node [circle, fill, inner sep=0, minimum size=2pt,label=#2:#1]{}
}}]
\clip (-0.25, -0.25) rectangle (1.5,1.5);
\draw[axes] (-1.2,0) -- (1.2,0) node[right] {$x$};
\draw[axes] (0,-1.2) -- (0,1.2) node[above] {$y$};
\def\a{40}
\path
(0,0)  [dot=O:225]
(0:1)  [dot=A:315]
(\a:1) [dot=B:90]
(0:cos \a) [dot=C:270]
(\a:sec \a) [dot=D]
(1, cosec \a-cot \a) [dot=E];
\draw (O) circle[radius=1];
\draw (O) -- (B) -- (C);
\draw (B) -- (D) -- (A);
\draw [dashed] (B) -- (A);
\draw [dashed] (B) -- (E);
\pic ["$\theta$", draw, ->, angle radius=1cm] {angle=C--O--B};
\path (O) -- (B) node [midway, above] {$1$};
\path (O) -- (C) node [midway, below] {$\cos\theta$};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} • how do you put $\theta$ on the arc in your case? – Maryà Oct 24 '17 at 11:44
• @marya if you mean the arc on the unit circle, I wouldn't put $\theta$ there (a) because it is too 'crowded' and with or without a white background may obscure one or more of the lines BA, BE or ED, and (b) it is unnecessary given the annotation near the origin. – Mark Wibrow Oct 24 '17 at 12:19
• Nice point. But what if I wanted the $\theta$ on the arc. How different would it be? Could you show me? – Maryà Oct 24 '17 at 12:25
• @marya you could try \node [fill=white] at (\a/2:1) {$\theta$};, probably adjusting the inner sep of the node if necessary. – Mark Wibrow Oct 24 '17 at 12:51
• Worked Perfectly. Gracias! – Maryà Oct 24 '17 at 13:16

Also available in Metapost... \RequirePackage{luatex85}
\documentclass[border=5mm]{standalone}
\usepackage{luamplib}
\begin{document}
\mplibtextextlabel{enable}
\begin{mplibcode}
beginfig(1);

path xx, yy, circle;
pair O, A, B, C, D, E;
numeric theta;

xx = (6 left -- 6 right) scaled 1cm;
yy = (1 down -- 6 up) scaled 1cm;
circle = fullcircle scaled 10cm;

theta = 42;

O = origin;
A = point 0 of circle;
B = point theta * 8 / 360 of circle;
C = (xpart B, 0);
D = whatever[O,B]; D-A = whatever * up;
E = whatever[A,D]; B-E = whatever * (B-O) rotated 90;

drawarrow xx withpen pencircle scaled .8;
drawarrow yy withpen pencircle scaled .8;
draw subpath (-1/4, 17/4) of circle withcolor .67 red;

draw E--B dashed evenly scaled 1/2 withcolor .75 blue;
draw A--B dashed evenly scaled 1/2 withcolor .75 blue;

draw A--D--O;
draw C--B;

label.rt  ("$x$", point 1 of xx);
label.top ("$y$", point 1 of yy);

label.llft("$O$", O);
label.lrt ("$A$", A);
label.top ("$B$", B + 3 up);
label.bot ("$C$", C);
label.top ("$D$", D);
label.rt  ("$E$", E);

label.ulft("$1$", 1/2 B);
label.bot("$\cos\theta$", 1/2 C);

path a; a = fullcircle scaled 42 cutafter (O--B);
interim ahangle := 25;
drawarrow a withcolor .5 white;
label.rt("$\theta$", point .5 of a);

picture t;
t = thelabel("$\theta$", point 1/2 theta * 8 / 360 of circle);
unfill bbox t; draw t;

endfig;
\end{mplibcode}
\end{document}


## Notes

• left, right, up, and down are defined in plain MP to be the pairs (-1,0), (1,0), (0,1), and (0,-1). So they are convenient for describing the axes, as variations on the path left -- right. I could have written: xx = (-6cm,0) -- (6cm,0); instead, but I like using the names instead of the numbers.

• fullcircle is also defined in plain MP, to be a circle with unit diameter, so to get a circle with a 5cm radius, I have defined fullcircle scaled 10cm.

• fullcircle is defined in plain MP to have 8 "points" starting at 3 o'clock (as it were) and going round counter clockwise, so that 12 o'clock is point 2, and 6 o'clock is point 6, and so on. The construction point theta / 8 * 360 of circle gives the point that is theta degrees counter clockwise from point 0.

• It is always a pleasure to read your Metapost answers! One small criticism: IMHO, a beginner will have a hard time understanding point theta * 8 / 360 of circle because 8 appears to be a magic number. I think that point theta / 360 along circle is easier to understand, but that would require adding metafun as a dependency. – Aditya Oct 30 '17 at 8:55
• @Aditya thank you! I never can quite decide if I want to add lots of explanatory notes, or allow readers to puzzle it out for themselves. But I think that here, you are right, and I should add a note. – Thruston Oct 30 '17 at 8:58
• Actually, in this case B = 5cm * dir theta; might be easier! – Aditya Oct 30 '17 at 9:06
• True. But then we would need to make the radius a variable, to keep with the principle of orthogonality that I like to follow. – Thruston Oct 30 '17 at 9:11

Asymptote MWE:

//
// theta.asy
//
// To get theta.pdf, run
//
// asy theta.asy
//

settings.tex="pdflatex";
import graph;
size(5cm);
import fontsize;defaultpen(fontsize(9pt));
texpreamble("\usepackage{lmodern}"
+"\usepackage{amsmath}"
+"\usepackage{amsfonts}"
+"\usepackage{amssymb}"
);

real w=0.5bp;
pen linePen=darkblue+w;
pen arcPen=orange+w;
pen markPen=gray(0.3)+w;
pen axisPen=gray(0.3)+w;
pen dashPen=gray(0.3)+w+linetype(new real[]{5,5})+squarecap;
arrowbar arr=Arrow(HookHead,size=2);

xaxis("$x$",0,1.1,axisPen,arr);
yaxis("$y$",0,1.1,axisPen,arr);

real R=1,theta=42;
pair O,A,B,C,D,E;

guide gc=Arc(O,R,-4,94);
A=(R,0); B=rotate(theta)*A; C=(B.x,0);
D=extension(O,B,A,A+(0,1));
E=extension(A,D,B,B+rotate(90)*(B-O));
draw(gc,arcPen);
draw(B--C^^O--D--A,linePen);
draw(A--B--E,dashPen);

pair[] p={O,A,B,C,D,E};
string[] lab={"O","A","B","C","D","E"};
pair[] dp={plain.SW,plain.SW,plain.N,plain.S,plain.N,plain.E,};
for(int i=0;i<p.length;++i){
dot(p[i],UnFill);
label(lab[i],p[i],dp[i]);
}

draw("$\theta$",arc(O,0.12,0,theta),markPen);
label("$1$",(O+B)/2,UnFill);
label("$\cos\theta$",(O+C)/2,UnFill); The point D is at (R,R*tan(theta)), E is found by the help of the intersections library. I modified some other things as well, such as declaring constants used for angle and radius, and drawing the various elements based on those. There are a now some comments in the code. \documentclass[margin=10pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{intersections}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[
%  scale=4.0,
axes/.style={thick,->},
declare function={
% define functions/constants for angle and radius
theta=30;
R=4;
},
% reduce font size for labels
every label/.append style={font=\scriptsize}
]
% addition: base axes length on radius
\draw[axes] (-1.2*R,0) -- (1.2*R,0) node[right] {$x$};
\draw[axes] (0,-1.2*R) -- (0,1.2*R) node[above] {$y$};

% addition: add named coordinate with label in origin
% use constant defined above for radius
\draw (0,0) coordinate[label=below left:$O$] (O) circle[radius=R];

% addition: start point of arc relative to radius
\draw[->] (0.2*R,0) node[above right]{$\theta$} arc[start angle=0, end angle=theta, radius=0.2*R];

% additions;
%  - named coordinates with labels in B and C
%  - moved drawing of "1" node to this path (no need for a second one I think)
\draw (O) -- node[below]{$\cos \theta$} ({R*cos(theta)},0) coordinate [label=below:$C$] (C)
-- ({R*cos(theta)},{R*sin(theta)}) coordinate[label=above:$B$] (B)
-- node[above]{$1$} cycle;

% new path, drawing from A via D to B
% name this path A, to use later
\draw [name path=A] (R,0) coordinate[label=below right:$A$] (A)
-- (R,{R*tan(theta)}) coordinate [label=above right:$D$] (D)
-- (B);

% path that doesn't influence bounding box (overlay option)
% starting at B, using polar coordinates to make the path tangent
% to the circle
% name path B to use below
\path[overlay,name path=B] (B) -- ++(theta-90:R);

% calculate intersections of ADB path and the invisible path, name the first
% intersection E. draw dasdhed line from B to E
\draw [name intersections={of=A and B,by={E,}},dashed] (B) -- (E) node[right,font=\scriptsize] {$E$};

\draw [dashed] (B) -- (A);

% alternative way of placing second theta-node, saves manual adjustment
% relative to the line BC
\path (A) arc[start angle=0,end angle=theta/2,radius=R] node[inner sep=1pt,fill=white]{$\theta$};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}