# How can I divide thebibliography into sections?

I am using thebibliography to manually create my bibliography. However, I would like to divide it into two sections: academics and practitioners. Here is a sample of my bibliography:

\begin{thebibliography}{}

\bibitem {} Afuah, A. N. and Tucci, C. (2000). \textit{‘Internet business models and strategies: text and cases’}, 1st edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Education.

\bibitem {} Alt, R. and Zimmermann, H.D. (2001). ‘Preface: introduction to special section– business models’, \textit{EM - Electronic Markets}, 11(1): pp. 3-9.


I would like to insert a title, after 'Bibliography', which is generated automatically, saying "Academics". If I write anything which is not contained in the \bibitem environment I get an error. However, for the second section, ('Practitioners') which comes after some 30 items, I can insert text manually outside the \bibitem environment, without getting an error. Just like so:

\bibitem {} Wilson, H.J. et al. (2016). ‘Companies are re-imagining business processes with algorithms’, \textit{Harvard Business Review}, (February 2016).

%(end of academics section, beginning of practitioners section)

\begin{huge}
Practitioners
\end{huge}

\medskip

\bibitem {} Harrington, L. (2016). \textit{‘The predictive enterprise: where data science meets supply chain’}, DHL Supply chain. \url{< http://supplychain.dhl.com/LP=704?nu_ref=Vanity-URL>}


How can I obtain the same thing but at the beginning of the paragraph? It seems like I can write regular text in the middle of the bibliography but not immediately at the beginning.

• Welcome to TeX SX! Could you consider using biblatex? It has dedicated tools. – Bernard Oct 25 '17 at 18:28
• Thank you Kurt for your answer. However, since I have already filled my dissertation with manually entered citations, and since I already have the piece of code necessary for the bibliography, I was wondering if if it wasn't too late to use biblatex or similar, given that I have already done the job. Do you suggest I start using it anyway? Is it going to be a long job, converting the whole bibliography to another format? – Valentina Ghelfi Oct 26 '17 at 13:00
• This depends on the number of references, but anyway a bibliography manager like JabRef can help avoiding syntax errors. If you post some items from your bibliography, we can show how they should be transformed. – Bernard Oct 26 '17 at 13:08
• Thank you Bernard (sorry for calling you Kurt before). I do have 42 references to insert + a webography which is in the making. Here are some examples: (book) Afuah, A. N. and Tucci, C. (2000). ‘Internet business models and strategies: text and cases’, 1st edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Education. (article) Alt, R. and Zimmermann, H.D. (2001). ‘Preface: introduction to special section– business models’, EM - Electronic Markets, 11(1): pp. 3-9. (reference with url) Skok, M. J. (2014). Harvard innovation lab presents ‘Startup secrets’. <startupsecrets.com > – Valentina Ghelfi Oct 26 '17 at 14:00

## 1 Answer

With LaTeX, most people use a bibliography package, mainly natbib or biblatex. You can use one of them to solve your problem.

This is a good way to get started. After getting familiar with that I think the post natbib: Split Bibliography Into Sections By Entrytype (without using multibib) may be the final answer to your question.

What follows is the code that Benedikt wrote in the last post mentioned above:

\begin{filecontents}{minimal.bib}
@electronic{electronic1,
author = {A. Author},
title = {Funny website},
urldate = {2013-01-09},
url = {http://www.example.org},
},
@book{book1,
author = {B. Bthor},
title = {A Book of whatever},
date = {2012},
},
@article{article1,
author = {C. Cthor and D. Dthor},
title = {Writing interesting articles},
journaltitle = {The Journal of References},
date = {2010-12-01},
}
\end{filecontents}

\documentclass{book}
\usepackage[
natbib=true,                    % natbib compatibility mode
]{biblatex}
\addbibresource{minimal.bib}
\begin{document}
\nocite{*}
\printbibheading                    % print heading for all bibliographies
\printbibliography[
nottype = online,               % Put here verything that is NOT of the type "online".
% The "electronic" type is just an alias to "online"
title={Books and Journals},     % title of the subbibliography
heading=subbibliography         % make bibliography go one sectioning level lower
]
\printbibliography[
type=online,                    % Put only references of the type "online" here.
title={Electronic Ressources},
heading=subbibliography
]
\end{document}

• Thank you Evariste for your answer. However, since I have already filled my dissertation with manually entered citations, and since I already have the piece of code necessary for the bibliography, I was wondering if if it wasn't too late to use biblatex or similar, given that I have already done the job. Do you suggest I start using it anyway? Is it going to be a long job, converting the whole bibliography to another format? – Valentina Ghelfi Oct 26 '17 at 12:52
• At least with a text editor like Sublime it shouldn't take so long to copy and paste your references to a .bib file (It's pretty much that: copy-paste). How familiar are you with .bib files? Furthermore, I don't think inserting a title in the middle of the bibliography without using one of those packages is easier than converting the bibliography to a new format. – evaristegd Oct 26 '17 at 13:03
• And welcome to TeX SX, I hope you have pleasant journey here! – evaristegd Oct 26 '17 at 13:34
• Thank you Evariste! Well, how familiar am I...not at all I'm afraid! But this forum is so full of important information that I think I can have it sorted out quickly ;) – Valentina Ghelfi Oct 26 '17 at 13:54