I am trying to compile a document which has this reference:

    Abstract = {The complexity of indoor radio propagation has resulted in location-awareness being derived from empirical fingerprinting techniques, where positioning is performed via a previously-constructed radio map, usually of WiFi signals. The recent introduction of the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) radio protocol provides new opportunities for indoor location. It supports portable battery-powered beacons that can be easily distributed at low cost, giving it distinct advantages over WiFi. However, its differing use of the radio band brings new challenges too. In this work, we provide a detailed study of BLE fingerprinting using 19 beacons distributed around a ~600 m2 testbed to position a consumer device. We demonstrate the high susceptibility of BLE to fast fading, show how to mitigate this, and quantify the true power cost of continuous BLE scanning. We further investigate the choice of key parameters in a BLE positioning system, including beacon density, transmit power, and transmit frequency. We also provide quantitative comparison with WiFi fingerprinting. Our results show advantages to the use of BLE beacons for positioning. For one-shot (push-to-fix) positioning we achieve <; 2.6 m error 95% of the time for a dense BLE network (1 beacon per 30 m2), compared to <; 4.8 m for a reduced density (1 beacon per 100 m2) and <; 8.5 m for an established WiFi network in the same area.},
    Author = {R. Faragher and R. Harle},
    Date-Added = {2017-10-27 13:12:59 +0000},
    Date-Modified = {2017-10-27 13:12:59 +0000},
    Doi = {10.1109/JSAC.2015.2430281},
    Issn = {0733-8716},
    Journal = {IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications},
    Keywords = {Bluetooth;indoor navigation;indoor radio;mobility management (mobile radio);radiowave propagation;BLE radio protocol;Bluetooth low energy radio protocol;WiFi signal;continuous BLE scanning;dense BLE network;empirical fingerprinting technique;indoor radio propagation complexity;location awareness;location fingerprinting;one-shot positioning;radio map;Advertising;Aggregates;Batteries;Bluetooth;Fading;IEEE 802.11 Standards;Interference;Bluetooth Low Energy Positioning;Bluetooth Positioning;Indoor positioning;Location fingerprinting;bluetooth low energy positioning;bluetooth positioning;iBeacons;location fingerprinting},
    Month = {Nov},
    Number = {11},
    Pages = {2418-2428},
    Title = {Location Fingerprinting With Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons},
    Volume = {33},
    Year = {2015},
    Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2015.2430281}}

But lualatex somehow crashes after I run the biber command. But if I remove the entry named above everything works. Does the abstract somehow contain a character which is not allowed?

  • 1
    This answer might be of interest tex.stackexchange.com/a/388652/105447 . I myself faced problems once with a bibkey starting with a number. But I don't really know why. Could report what happens if you change your key with art7103024?
    – gusbrs
    Commented Oct 27, 2017 at 14:28
  • @gusbrs I have removed the Abstract part of the entry and everything compiled fine. Therefore I think it must be something in the Abstract part of the entry.
    – Pascal
    Commented Oct 27, 2017 at 14:29
  • 2
    Another possibility is the unscaped % in your abstract field.
    – gusbrs
    Commented Oct 27, 2017 at 14:29
  • @gusbrs It worked when I escaped the % symbol. Thanks
    – Pascal
    Commented Oct 27, 2017 at 14:31
  • See also tex.stackexchange.com/q/352662/35864
    – moewe
    Commented Oct 28, 2017 at 17:17

1 Answer 1


There is an unscaped % in your abstract field. If you change 95% with 95\% you should be fine.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .