I need to draw this (likely very simple) diagram shown in the image but I've never used Tikz before.


My problem is basiclly how to draw these vertical dotted lines and mainly arrange the math in blocks like this with these arrows pointing from one to the other - of course I have no problem writing the math, the needed structure is giving me problems. Any help would be very appreciated. Thanks in advance.

So far I was able to do this. I feel I'm almost there, but having problems with alignments. Any help?

\begin{tikzpicture}[square/.style={regular polygon,regular polygon sides=4}]

%Draw dashed lines
\draw  [dashed] (2.5,0) -- (2.5,2);
\draw  [dashed] (5,0) -- (5,2);
\draw  [dashed] (7.5,0) -- (7.5,2);

%Draw nodes of equations
\node at (1.25,1) [square,inner sep=-1.3em, draw] {
     \vert \Psi \rangle &= \sum_{i}{c_i \vert a_i \rangle},\\
     &\sum_{i}{\vert a_i \rangle \langle a_i \vert} = \mathds{1}

\node at (3.75,1) [square,inner sep=-1.3em, draw] {};
\node at (6.25,1) [square,inner sep=-1.3em, draw] {};

%Draw title nodes

\node at (1.25,2) [square,inner sep=-1.3em, draw] {$\left( \mathcal{H}, \langle \cdot \vert \cdot \rangle \right)$};
\node at (3.75,2) [square,inner sep=-1.3em, draw] {$\left( \mathcal{H}_{Phys}, \langle \cdot \vert \cdot \rangle _{\eta _{+}} \right)$};
\node at (6.25,2) [square,inner sep=-1.3em, draw] {$\left( \mathcal{H}, \langle \cdot \vert \cdot \rangle \right)$};


Also I don't know if this is a good approach to do what I want. Thanks.

  • 5
    Welcome to TeX.SX! Please help us (and also you) and add a minimal working example (MWE). This isn't a "Please do my work for me" site! What do you have so far? Try to create ... It would help if you could just add the formula.
    – Bobyandbob
    Nov 11, 2017 at 14:52
  • You could use a matrix of math nodes from tikz. For details see section 57.1 of the tikz manual or search for examples on TeX.SX!
    – user30471
    Nov 11, 2017 at 15:16
  • Alright, I'm trying to work something out. Anything I'll post here. Thanks Nov 11, 2017 at 15:51

1 Answer 1


With arydshln and a couple of tricks.




% first column
(\mathcal{H},\braket{\blank|\blank}) \\
\ket{\psi}=\sum_i c_i\ket{a_i} \\
\sum_i \lvert a_i\times a_i\rvert = 1
%second column
(\mathcal{H}_{\rho hy},\braket{\blank|\blank}_{\eta_+}) \\
\ket{\psi}  &\to \ket{\psi'}=\sum_i c_i\rho^{-1}\ket{a_i} \\
\ket{\psi'} &\to \ket{\psi'(t)}=e^{-iHt/\hbar}\ket{\psi'}
% third column
(\mathcal{H},\braket{\blank|\blank}) \\
& \ket{\psi'} \to \ket{\psi(t)} = \rho\ket{\psi'(t)} \\
& \quad = \rho e^{-iHt/\hbar}\ket{\psi'} \\
& \quad = \rho e^{-iHt/\hbar}\rho^{-1}\ket{\psi} \\
& \quad = e^{-iHt/\hbar}\ket{\psi}


enter image description here

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