I'm a newbie to bibtex, therefore my question might be straightforward. My problem is the following: I need to cite in "Havard Style" and I want to use the agsm-style of the natbib package. However, in the text of the document, I want to have an "and" instead of the ampersand in between two authors.

How to accomplish that?

My MWE is:

tmargin={2cm},bmargin = {2cm}]{geometry}
\usepackage{amsmath} % for equations over multiple lines
\usepackage[hang,bottom]{footmisc} % Fußzeile bleibt am Boden %
\usepackage{longtable} % table over two pages



\usepackage[flushleft]{threeparttable} %note below table


\usepackage{natbib}  % havard style citation






  Title                    = {Deploying Enterprise Solutions},
  Author                   = {Craigim WW and Craigim XX},
  Journal                  = {Journal of Force Multiplication and Utilization},
  Year                     = {2010},

  Title                    = {Marketplace Leveraging},
  Author                   = {Craigim},
  Journal                  = {Journal of Human Assets},
  Year                     = {2009},



Why is there always the ampersand between the authors when using \citet{craigim2010}


  • Do you want to change & to and only inside the text, while keeping & in the bibliography, or do you want to change both appearences?
    – leandriis
    Commented Nov 22, 2017 at 8:40
  • @leandis - thanks for your quick reply! I want to change both
    – Jogi
    Commented Nov 22, 2017 at 8:41

1 Answer 1


The easiest way to change both appearences (in the text and in the bibliography) should be adding


to your preamble. The .bst file uses the command harvardand to print & while the above command changes \harvardand to print and instead.

  • you made my day! Submission is today ;)
    – Jogi
    Commented Nov 22, 2017 at 8:55

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