2

What is the best way to achieve the result you can see in the following image?

enter image description here

This is the code so far, lacks of the boxes

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{array, mathtools}

\begin{document}

\begin{tabular}{|>{$}r<{$}|>{$}c<{$}|>{$}c<{$}|>{$}c<{$}|>{$}c<{$}|}
    \hline
       & a^k & b^k & c^k & d^k \\ \hline
    1. & & & & \\ \hline
    2. & & & & \\ \hline
    3. & & & & \\ \hline
    4. & & & & \\ \hline
    5. & & & & \\ \hline
    6. & & & & \\ \hline
    7. & & & & \\ \hline
    8. & & & & \\ \hline
    9. & & & & \\ \hline
    10. & & & & \\ \hline
    11. & & & & \\ \hline
    12. & & & & \\ \hline
    13. & & & & \\ \hline
\end{tabular}

\end{document}
2

with TikZ:

\documentclass[tikz,border=2mm]{standalone} 
\usetikzlibrary{positioning, matrix}

\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\matrix (A) [matrix of math nodes,
    nodes in empty cells,
    nodes={draw, minimum width=15mm, minimum height=7mm, outer sep=0pt, anchor=center},
    column 1/.style={nodes={minimum width=8mm}},
    column sep=-\pgflinewidth,
    row sep=-\pgflinewidth]
    { & a^k & b^k & a^k & b^k\\
    1.& & & & \\
    2.& & & & \\
    3.& & & & \\
    4.& & & & \\
    5.& & & & \\
    6.& & & & \\
    7.& & & & \\
    8.& & & & \\
    9.& & & & \\
    10.& & & & \\
    11.& & & & \\
    12.& & & & \\
    13.& & & & \\};
    \foreach \i [evaluate=\i as \ni using int(\i+1), evaluate=\i as \xi using (\ni-1)*15/4+8] in {1,2,...,13}
        {\node (v) [minimum width=6mm, minimum height=5mm, draw, fill=white] at ([xshift=\xi mm]A-\ni-1.west) {$v$};
            \node (x) [right=1mm of v, minimum width=6mm, minimum height=5mm, draw, fill=white]{$x$};}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

[1]: https://i.stack.imgur.com/a7REq.png

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