I don't really understand how TeX Live works over the network. Say, I have TeX Live installed on my Ubuntu server. Can I use my favorite LaTeX editor in Windows, and use the TeX Live that is on my server to compile my document? If so, can someone point me to a guide as to how to do that, or explain it to me?
It is true that TeXLive does not, out of the box, work like that. On the other hand, it should not be too hard to set everything up in such way that the file would be actually on the server, in a directory that is exported by samba, so you can mount it from the windows machine. You would then edit it on the windows machine, and in the editor you would have the compilation commands set up to run on the ubuntu server over ssh. Or you could keep the tex file on the windows machine, and setup the compilation commands to be scripts that would copy all the necessary files to the server, run tex on them, and copy the resulting pdf, log and all other useful files back to the windows machine.
I do not really see very good reason to do that, since TeXLive can easily be installed on windows, but if you have a powerful server and a small underpowered windows machine, or a windows machine on which you for some reason cannot install a large software package such as TeXLive, it may be a viable solution.
Either way, this solution is probably more suitable for SuperUser than this site.