I'm on Ubuntu 16.04. I can use the Georgia Font in LibreOffice Writer. I want to use the font in a Latex Beamer document. Something like
fails. What is wrong?
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TeXnician did not post his correct comment as an answer, so I will provide a summary:
In traditional pdftex (pdflatex), the fonts are based on PostScript (or older) technology, and are specified using LaTeX font packages. The font package not only contains the font and its metrics, but also includes TeX code describing how the font is used by TeX.
Although a PostScript font can contain many characters, the original technology only allowed a byte's worth of them to be in use at one time. TeX deals with this via font encodings.
If you enjoy torture, you can disassemble a font such as Georgia (if license permits), and write LaTeX font packages that will load its components.
But before you do that, consider using LuaLaTeX or XeTeX as the compiler, instead of pdflatex. With LuaLaTeX or XeTeX, you load the
fontspec package. This enables you to read modern Open Type and TrueType fonts directly, without the need for LaTeX font packages. And, the fonts can be found if they are installed in your operating system. That's what you are trying to do.
Best of all, you use utf-8 encoding, so you can mix and match Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and many other characters directly, just by pasting them from a character map.
If you search around, you will find plenty of information on the subject. Understand that each compiler has a few things that it will or won't do, compared to the other compilers. But as far as I know, for general usage it is easy to switch, at least to LuaLaTeX.