# how to draw an isothermal curve in pgf tikz?

I am working on a thermodynamic course. I want to draw an isothermal curve in the diagram of clapeyron and try this with the code below: I want to draw on the curve a colored surface between the point x = 3 and x = 6?

I want to add a arrow indicating the sense of direction of transformation from?

I'm using this code:

\documentclass[margin=10pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{pgfplots}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usetikzlibrary{patterns}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\tikzset{fleche/.style args={#1:#2}{ postaction = decorate,decoration={name=markings,mark=at position #1 with {\arrow[#2,scale=2]{>}}}}}
\begin{axis}[
axis x line=bottom,
axis y line=left,
xmin=0, xmax=10,
ymin=0, ymax=10,
xlabel={Volume $(m^3)$},
ylabel={Pression $Pa$},
ytick=\empty,
% extra y ticks={8},
extra y tick style={align=center, font=\scriptsize},
%extra y tick labels={normal\\health},
extra y ticks={1.5,6},
extra y tick labels={$\text{P}_\text{1}$,$\text{P}_\text{2}$},
xtick=\empty,
extra x ticks={3,6},
extra x tick labels={$\text{V}_\text{1}$,$\text{V}_\text{2}$},
]

\draw (axis cs:3,6) to [bend right=30]
coordinate[pos=0] (B') coordinate[pos=0.17] (B) coordinate[pos=0.6] (B'') (axis cs:6,1.5);
\addplot[color=red,fill=red, pattern=north east lines,  domain=3:6,samples=100] {6} \closedcycle;
\draw[dashed, thin] (axis cs:6,1.5) -- (axis cs:6,0);
\draw[dashed, thin] (axis cs:3,6) -- (axis cs:3,0);
\end{axis}
\end{tikzpicture}

\end{document}

• Could you please explain the first question? Which surface? – caverac Jan 17 '18 at 11:08
• Welcome to TeX.SX! I also don't know what you exactly want to achieve. Could you sketch on your diagram what you want to do and/or modify the text, please!? – Stefan Pinnow Jan 17 '18 at 14:08
• i want to draw the geometrical surface between the axis x=V1 and x=V2, of this function, but, i don't have any expression P=f(V), so i use list of points axis cs:6,1.5 .. i want to explain to my students the work can be considered like a surface , in the clapeyron diagram. for this raison i want to colorate the integrated surface of P=f(V) between V1 to V2 – moradov Jan 17 '18 at 14:32
• Please don't use \text like this, that command does not do what you think, and _\text is equally as bad even if it works in this case. Use mathrm or textup instead. This wrong use of \text is a very common error, and visitors should preferably not be encouraged to use it like this. Btw why \text{1}? – daleif Jan 17 '18 at 19:53

## Revised answer (using PGFPlots v1.16)

With the release of the PGFPlots v1.16 it is now possible to use pgf declared constants/functions almost everywhere. With that it is now easy to draw the real P-V-curve as well as the corresponding axis ticklabels very easily.

For details please have a look at the comments in the code.

% used PGFPlots v1.16
\documentclass[border=5pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{pgfplots}
\usetikzlibrary{
decorations.markings,
}
\tikzset{
fleche/.style args={#1:#2}{
postaction=decorate,
decoration={
name=markings,
mark=at position #1 with {\arrow[#2,scale=2]{>}}
},
},
}
\pgfplotsset{
% use this compat' level or higher, so TikZ coordinates don't have to
% be prefixed with axis cs:'
compat=1.11,
% define some values and functions to "automatically" draw the
% desired plot afterwards, regardless of the values
% (only the values for xmax' and ymax' have to be adjusted accordingly)
% ideal gas law: P V = n R T = const
/pgf/declare function={
% define V1, V2 and P1
Vone = 3;
Vtwo = 6;
Pone = 6;
% calculate constant nRT
nRT = Vone * Pone;
% now any P can be calculated for a given V
P(\V) = nRT/\V;
% for simplicity of later use already calc P2 here and assign the
% result to a constant
Ptwo = P(Vtwo);
},
}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\begin{axis}[
axis x line=bottom,
axis y line=left,
xmin=0,xmax=10,
ymin=0,ymax=10,
% the ticks can be positioned at the declared constants "automatically"
xtick={Vone,Vtwo},
xticklabels={$V_1$,$V_2$},
ytick={0,Ptwo,Pone},
yticklabels={0,$P_2$,$P_1$},
axis on top,
]

% fill the area below the curve
% (draw it first, so it is below everything else)
draw=none,
fill=red!40,
% the declared constants can also be used here
domain=Vone:Vtwo,
] {P(x)}
\closedcycle
;

% now draw the curve with the arrow on the line
thick,
domain=Vone:Vtwo,
fleche={0.6:red},
] {P(x)}
coordinate [pos=0] (start)
coordinate [pos=1] (end)
;

% draw dashed lines and start and end points
% (and here the declared constants can be used as well)
\pgfplotsforeachungrouped \point in {start,end} {
\edef\temp{
\noexpand\draw [dashed]
(\pgfkeysvalueof{/pgfplots/xmin},0 |- \point) --
(\point) circle (2pt) --
(0,\pgfkeysvalueof{/pgfplots/ymin} -| \point);
\noexpand\fill (\point) circle (2pt);
}\temp
}

\end{axis}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} ## Original answer (using PGFPlots v1.15)

I edited my answer after you have shown in your answer what you really wanted the plot look like. For details please have a look at the comments in the code.

% used PGFPlots v1.15
\documentclass[border=5pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{pgfplots}
\usetikzlibrary{
decorations.markings,       % <-- missed to load
}
\tikzset{
fleche/.style args={#1:#2}{
postaction=decorate,
decoration={
name=markings,
mark=at position #1 with {\arrow[#2,scale=2]{>}}
},
},
}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\begin{axis}[
axis x line=bottom,
axis y line=left,
xmin=0, xmax=10,
ymin=0, ymax=10,
%        % (made labels more common)
%        % (because of the "sketch" type of the plot these should not be needed)
%        xlabel={Volume $(\mathrm{m}^3)$},
%        ylabel={Pressure (Pa)},
% (changed ticks + labels to normal ticks instead of extra ticks)
xtick={3,6},
xticklabels={$V_1$,$V_2$},
ytick={1.5,6},
yticklabels={$P_2$,$P_1$},  % <-- (changed order of entries)
]
% fill the area below the curve
% (draw it first, so it is below everything else)
\fill [
red!40,
]
(axis cs:3,6) to [bend right=30]
(axis cs:6,1.5) |-
(axis cs:3,\pgfkeysvalueof{/pgfplots/ymin}) --
cycle
;

% draw the dashed lines
% (using two different approaches)

\draw [dashed,thin] (axis cs:6,1.5) -- (axis cs:6,0);
\draw [dashed,thin] (axis cs:3,6)   -- (axis cs:3,0);

% now draw the curve
\draw [
fleche={0.6:red},
] (axis cs:3,6) to [bend right=30]
% store start and end coordinates
coordinate [pos=0] (start)
coordinate [pos=1] (end)
(axis cs:6,1.5);

% draw start and end point
(start) circle[]
(end)   circle[];
\end{axis}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} p V = n k T = const

\documentclass[border=5pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{pgfplots}
\usetikzlibrary{
decorations.markings,
patterns,
}
\tikzset{
fleche/.style args={#1:#2}{
postaction=decorate,
decoration={
name=markings,
mark=at position #1 with {\arrow[#2,scale=2]{>}}
},
},
}
\begin{document}\begin{tikzpicture}
\tikzset{fleche/.style args={#1:#2}{ postaction = decorate,decoration={name=markings,mark=at position #1 with {\arrow[#2,scale=2]{>}}}}}
\begin{axis}[
axis x line=bottom,
axis y line=left,
xmin=0, xmax=10,
ymin=0, ymax=10,
xlabel={Volume $(m^3)$},
ylabel={Pression $Pa$},
ytick=\empty,
% extra y ticks={8},
extra y tick style={align=center, font=\scriptsize},
%extra y tick labels={normal\\health},
extra y ticks={1.5,6},
extra y tick labels={$P_1$,$P_2$},
xtick=\empty,
extra x ticks={3,6},
extra x tick labels={$V_1$,$V_2$},
]

%     \draw (axis cs:3,6) to [bend right=30]
%         coordinate[pos=0] (B') coordinate[pos=0.17] (B) coordinate[pos=0.6] (B'') (axis cs:6,1.5);
\addplot [domain=3:6,fill=red, pattern=north east lines] (\x,{6/(\x-2)})\closedcycle;
\draw[dashed, thin] (axis cs:6,1.5) -- (axis cs:6,0);
\draw[dashed, thin] (axis cs:3,6) -- (axis cs:3,0);
\end{axis}
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document} • thank you very much for your quick reply, by two this answers i can draw my figure – moradov Jan 17 '18 at 16:46
• Btw: please don't use the \text  command like that. I know the op did and I'll comment there as well. Otherwise +1 for a good answer – daleif Jan 17 '18 at 19:49
• @daleif Done. I did not pay any attention to this. The only purpose of this post was that one does not have to guess the curve, nor fake it, but just open a random book on thermodynamics. – user121799 Jan 17 '18 at 20:18

Thank you, I got to that I want by modifying the first code

% used PGFPlots v1.15
\documentclass[border=5pt]{standalone}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{pgfplots}
\usetikzlibrary{
decorations.markings,       % <-- missed to load
patterns,
}
\tikzset{
fleche/.style args={#1:#2}{
postaction=decorate,
decoration={
name=markings,
mark=at position #1 with {\arrow[#2,scale=2]{>}}
},
},
}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\begin{axis}[
axis x line=bottom,
axis y line=left,
xmin=0, xmax=10,
ymin=0, ymax=10,
%        % (made labels more common)
%        % (because of the "sketch" type of the plot these should not be needed)
%        xlabel={Volume $(\mathrm{m}^3)$},
%        ylabel={Pressure (Pa)},
% (changed ticks + labels to normal ticks instead of extra ticks)
xtick={3,6},
xticklabels={$V_1$,$V_2$},
ytick={1.5,6},
yticklabels={$P_2$,$P_1$},  % <-- (changed order of entries)
]
% fill the area below the curve
% (draw it first, so it is below everything else)
\fill [
red!40,
]
(axis cs:3,6) to [bend right=30]
(axis cs:6,1.5) |-
(axis cs:3,\pgfkeysvalueof{/pgfplots/ymin}) --
cycle
;

\draw [
fleche={0.6:red},