2
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{pgfplots, pgfplotstable}
\usepackage{filecontents}
\usepackage{indentfirst}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{hhline}
\usepackage{multirow}
\usepackage{datatool}

\begin{filecontents}{data.dat}
28.7 28.4 43.4
0.2416 0.2415 nan
0.2420 0.2416 nan
0.2421 0.2416 nan
0.2416 0.2422 nan
0.2410 0.2422 nan
35.9 35.6 50.4
0.2695 0.2691 nan
0.2679 0.2691 nan
0.2691 0.2697 nan
0.2691 0.2691 nan
0.2686 0.2694 nan
42.6 42.3 57.4
0.2951 0.2953 nan
0.2950 0.2951 nan
0.2952 0.2956 nan
0.2951 0.2957 nan
0.2951 0.2954 nan
47.2 46.9 61.9
0.3091 0.3104 nan
0.3095 0.3107 nan
0.3106 0.3107 nan
0.3105 0.3110 nan
0.3107 0.3103 nan
51.3 51.1 66.1
0.3234 0.3231 nan
0.3231 0.3235 nan
0.3238 0.3233 nan
0.3229 0.3241 nan
0.3243 0.3230 nan
57.4 57.2 72.3
0.3417 0.3431 nan
0.3426 0.3431 nan
0.3422 0.3437 nan
0.3430 0.3427 nan
0.3429 0.3437 nan
\end{filecontents}

\pgfplotsset{compat=1.14}
\pgfplotstableread{data.dat}\Data

\begin{document}

\begin{table}
\title{Pendulum Data for Steel Ball}
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|l|} \hline
$d$ (cm) & $y$ (cm) & $\tau$ (s) & $\tau^2$ (s) \\\hhline{|=|=|=|=|}
\foreach \row in {0,...,35}
{
        \newcount\countuno
        \countuno=\row
        \divide\countuno by 6
        \multiply\countuno by 6
        \ifnum\countuno=\row
                \pgfplotstablegetelem{\row}{2}\of\Data    \pgfmathsetmacro\dval{\pgfplotsretval}
                \pgfplotstablegetelem{\row}{0}\of\Data \pgfmathsetmacro\yval{\pgfplotsretval}
                \multirow{5}{*}{$\pgfmathprintnumber{\dval}$} & \multirow{5}{*}{$\pgfmathprintnumber{\yval}$}
        \else
                \pgfplotstablegetelem{\row}{0}\of\Data \pgfmathsetmacro\tval{\pgfplotsretval}
                \pgfmathsetmacro\tsqrval{\tval ^ 2}
                \advance\countuno by 1
                \ifnum\countuno<\row
                        &
                \fi
                & $\pgfmathprintnumber{\tval}$ & $\pgfmathprintnumber{\tsqrval}$ \\\hline
        \fi
}
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{document}

I get the error

! Missing \endgroup inserted.
<inserted text> 
                \endgroup
l.83     }

I don't see where the error could be. I've spent some time fiddling around with the syntax of the if statements but they don't seem to be causing the problem, and as far as I know the foreach loop looks fine as well. Possibly it has something to do with the pgf commands. It'd be really awesome if someone were to spot the problem.

0

You can't start the loop in one cell and end it in another.

A workaround is to build the table in the first cell and deliver it all at once.

Since I'm against \multirow and jailed tables, here's how you can do with booktabs.

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{pgfplots, pgfplotstable}
\usepackage{filecontents}
\usepackage{amsmath}
\usepackage{booktabs}

\begin{filecontents}{\jobname.dat}
28.7 28.4 43.4
0.2416 0.2415 nan
0.2420 0.2416 nan
0.2421 0.2416 nan
0.2416 0.2422 nan
0.2410 0.2422 nan
35.9 35.6 50.4
0.2695 0.2691 nan
0.2679 0.2691 nan
0.2691 0.2697 nan
0.2691 0.2691 nan
0.2686 0.2694 nan
42.6 42.3 57.4
0.2951 0.2953 nan
0.2950 0.2951 nan
0.2952 0.2956 nan
0.2951 0.2957 nan
0.2951 0.2954 nan
47.2 46.9 61.9
0.3091 0.3104 nan
0.3095 0.3107 nan
0.3106 0.3107 nan
0.3105 0.3110 nan
0.3107 0.3103 nan
51.3 51.1 66.1
0.3234 0.3231 nan
0.3231 0.3235 nan
0.3238 0.3233 nan
0.3229 0.3241 nan
0.3243 0.3230 nan
57.4 57.2 72.3
0.3417 0.3431 nan
0.3426 0.3431 nan
0.3422 0.3437 nan
0.3430 0.3427 nan
0.3429 0.3437 nan
\end{filecontents}

\pgfplotsset{compat=1.14}
\pgfplotstableread{\jobname.dat}\Data

\newcount\countuno

\begin{document}

\begin{table}
\title{Pendulum Data for Steel Ball}
\begin{tabular}{llll}
\toprule
$d$ (cm) & $y$ (cm) & $\tau$ (s) & $\tau^2$ (s) \\
\midrule
\gdef\tablecontents{}%
\foreach \row in {0,...,35}
  {%
   \countuno=\row
   \divide\countuno by 6
   \multiply\countuno by 6
   \ifnum\countuno=\row
     \pgfplotstablegetelem{\row}{2}\of\Data
     \pgfmathsetmacro\dval{\pgfplotsretval}%
     \pgfplotstablegetelem{\row}{0}\of\Data
     \pgfmathsetmacro\yval{\pgfplotsretval}%
     \xdef\tablecontents{%
       \unexpanded\expandafter{\tablecontents}%
       \ifnum\row>0 \noexpand\midrule \fi
       $\noexpand\pgfmathprintnumber{\dval}$ &
       $\noexpand\pgfmathprintnumber{\yval}$
     }%
   \else
     \pgfplotstablegetelem{\row}{0}\of\Data
     \pgfmathsetmacro\tval{\pgfplotsretval}%
     \pgfmathsetmacro\tsqrval{\tval ^ 2}%
     \advance\countuno by 1
     \xdef\tablecontents{%
       \unexpanded\expandafter{\tablecontents}
       \ifnum\countuno<\row &\fi
       & $\noexpand\pgfmathprintnumber{\tval}$
       & $\noexpand\pgfmathprintnumber{\tsqrval}$
       \noexpand\\
     }%
   \fi
  }%
  \tablecontents
  \bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{document}

enter image description here

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