I am training myself in the use of Latex using Texworks but I don't understand why I keep getting errors when I try to link a reference. They are Research.tex 9 LaTeX Warning: Citation `shad2014' undefined on input line 9. and Research.tex LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references. I don't know why they keep popping up and the end result keeps showing? (?)

How can I fix this? my intention was to have a footer containing the reference. I need it to be in APA for university and at the end of the documents, I need the bibliography printed as well. I don't understand the documentation well enough to work it out myself.

Here is my code:

aaa ~\citeA {shad2014} 
\bibliography{Fonterra References} 
\end {document}

Here is the .bib document with the reference

   title={Fonterra as a case study of co-operative capital structure innovation},   
   author={Shadbolt, NM and Duncan, Alex},   
   journal={International Summit of Cooperatives, Quebec, Canada},   

Any help would be greatly appreciated

  • 2
    Welcome! Remove the space fro Fonterra References i.e. use FonterraReferences and FonterraReferences.bib. Avoid weird characters in file names - they spell trouble. Then run pdflatex -> bibtex -> pdflatex -> pdflatex to see your bibliography.
    – cfr
    Mar 7, 2018 at 4:41
  • Any chance you could have better line breaks (narrower lines)?
    – Hugh
    Mar 7, 2018 at 4:52
  • 1
    Did you run BibTeX after running LaTeX, followed by two more LaTeX runs?
    – Mico
    Mar 7, 2018 at 5:32

1 Answer 1


In addition to making sure that the filename of the bib file is parsable, do make sure that you're using the correct entry type for the entry at hand. It doesn't look like @article is the correct entry type; use either @misc or @inproceedings. And, be sure to run LaTeX, BibTeX, and LaTeX twice more each time you add or delete \cite-type directives in the body of the document.

enter image description here

   title={Fonterra as a Case Study of Cooperative Capital Structure Innovation},   
   author={Shadbolt, Nicola M. and Duncan, Alex},   
   howpublished={Paper presented at Qu{\'e}bec 2014 International Summit of Cooperatives},  


\citeA{shad2014} argue that \dots
  • 2
    To me, personally, this is the very same answer given so many times on TeX.SX. The overall question (probably) would be a duplicate. The rest would be too localized, not helpful for others -> off-topic.
    – Johannes_B
    Mar 7, 2018 at 6:18
  • @Johannes_B - It's depressingly common, in queries posted to this site, to see entry types such as @article be overused (and abused!) as some sort of catch-all entry type. That's why I bothered to post a longer answer. I do fully agree with you that the recommendation to run LaTeX/BibTeX/LaTeX/LaTeX must be one of the most common dupes on this site...
    – Mico
    Mar 7, 2018 at 6:27

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .